Effects of milbemycin oxime on adult Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala in dogs with experimentally induced infections

Dwight D. Bowman From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Lin) and Pathology (Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, and from the Ciba-Geigy Corp, Agricultural Division, Greensboro, NC 27419 (Hepler).

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Dah-Sheng Lin From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Lin) and Pathology (Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, and from the Ciba-Geigy Corp, Agricultural Division, Greensboro, NC 27419 (Hepler).

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Robert C. Johnson From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Lin) and Pathology (Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, and from the Ciba-Geigy Corp, Agricultural Division, Greensboro, NC 27419 (Hepler).

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Douglas I. Hepler From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology (Bowman, Lin) and Pathology (Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, and from the Ciba-Geigy Corp, Agricultural Division, Greensboro, NC 27419 (Hepler).

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SUMMARY

Previous work had indicated that the 2 canine hookworms, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, may differ in their susceptibility to treatment with milbemycin oxime. Thus, the study reported here was to examine the effects of this drug on concomitant infections in experimentally infected dogs. Twenty specific-pathogen-free Beagles were inoculated orally with 500 infective-stage larvae from a mixture of larval A caninum and U stenocephala. Quantitative fecal examinations were performed weekly, beginning the day of infection. The dogs were assigned to 2 equal groups, 1 group that received the compound and 1 that received a placebo. The dogs were treated on postinoculation days 30, 60, and 90. For A caninum, egg counts dropped precipitously after the first treatment, and no eggs of this species were found in the feces of any of the treated dogs after the second treatment. The treatments had no significant effect on the mean egg counts made on U stenocephala, although 2 dogs stopped passing eggs entirely after the second treatment. At necropsy, no A caninum were found in any of the treated dogs; the mean number recovered from the control-group dogs was 56.1. Significant difference was not found in the mean number of adult U stenocephala recovered from the treated and control groups (27.0 and 21.7, respectively).

SUMMARY

Previous work had indicated that the 2 canine hookworms, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, may differ in their susceptibility to treatment with milbemycin oxime. Thus, the study reported here was to examine the effects of this drug on concomitant infections in experimentally infected dogs. Twenty specific-pathogen-free Beagles were inoculated orally with 500 infective-stage larvae from a mixture of larval A caninum and U stenocephala. Quantitative fecal examinations were performed weekly, beginning the day of infection. The dogs were assigned to 2 equal groups, 1 group that received the compound and 1 that received a placebo. The dogs were treated on postinoculation days 30, 60, and 90. For A caninum, egg counts dropped precipitously after the first treatment, and no eggs of this species were found in the feces of any of the treated dogs after the second treatment. The treatments had no significant effect on the mean egg counts made on U stenocephala, although 2 dogs stopped passing eggs entirely after the second treatment. At necropsy, no A caninum were found in any of the treated dogs; the mean number recovered from the control-group dogs was 56.1. Significant difference was not found in the mean number of adult U stenocephala recovered from the treated and control groups (27.0 and 21.7, respectively).

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