Measurement of anal and genitoanal reflexes in cats

James R. Cook Jr. From the School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, W Lafayette, IN 47907 (Cook) and College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (Oliver, Purinton).

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John E. Oliver Jr. From the School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, W Lafayette, IN 47907 (Cook) and College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (Oliver, Purinton).

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Paul T. Purinton From the School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, W Lafayette, IN 47907 (Cook) and College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (Oliver, Purinton).

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SUMMARY

Noninvasive determination of anal and genitoanal reflexes was evaluated in clinically normal cats. Thirty adult mixed-breed cats (15 sexually intact or castrated males, 15 sexually intact or spayed females) were sedated by iv administration of ketamine, acetylpromazine, and atropine. Anal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after ipsilateral and contralateral electrical stimulation of the perineal skin. Genitoanal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after electrical stimulation of the penis or clitoris. An anal sphincter response to tibial nerve stimulation was attempted.

Anal reflexes from ipsilateral and contralateral stimulations and a genitoanal reflex were detected in all cats. Anal sphincter responses to tibial nerve stimulation were inconsistent (4/30) and were not included in any analyses. Anal reflexes had response latencies of 7.5 to 12.0 ms (ipsilateral stimulation) and 6.5 to 13 ms (contralateral stimulation). Genitoanal reflexes had latencies of 9.0 to 13.0 ms (males) and 6.5 to 9.0 ms (females). Anal reflex latencies were significantly (P < 0.05) longer for contralateral, opposed to ipsilateral, stimulation and were significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females. Genitoanal reflex latencies were also significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females, reflecting the more peripheral stimulation site in males.

Anal reflex responses could be recorded in 2 feline clinic patients with such severe perineal trauma that pudendal nerve function could not be manually evaluated. A potentially favorable prognosis was given in each instance on the basis of detection of the response. One cat eventually recovered. The other was euthanatized because of other problems, and the sacral part of the spinal cord, sacral nerve roots, and pudendal nerves were found to be intact at necropsy.

SUMMARY

Noninvasive determination of anal and genitoanal reflexes was evaluated in clinically normal cats. Thirty adult mixed-breed cats (15 sexually intact or castrated males, 15 sexually intact or spayed females) were sedated by iv administration of ketamine, acetylpromazine, and atropine. Anal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after ipsilateral and contralateral electrical stimulation of the perineal skin. Genitoanal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after electrical stimulation of the penis or clitoris. An anal sphincter response to tibial nerve stimulation was attempted.

Anal reflexes from ipsilateral and contralateral stimulations and a genitoanal reflex were detected in all cats. Anal sphincter responses to tibial nerve stimulation were inconsistent (4/30) and were not included in any analyses. Anal reflexes had response latencies of 7.5 to 12.0 ms (ipsilateral stimulation) and 6.5 to 13 ms (contralateral stimulation). Genitoanal reflexes had latencies of 9.0 to 13.0 ms (males) and 6.5 to 9.0 ms (females). Anal reflex latencies were significantly (P < 0.05) longer for contralateral, opposed to ipsilateral, stimulation and were significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females. Genitoanal reflex latencies were also significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females, reflecting the more peripheral stimulation site in males.

Anal reflex responses could be recorded in 2 feline clinic patients with such severe perineal trauma that pudendal nerve function could not be manually evaluated. A potentially favorable prognosis was given in each instance on the basis of detection of the response. One cat eventually recovered. The other was euthanatized because of other problems, and the sacral part of the spinal cord, sacral nerve roots, and pudendal nerves were found to be intact at necropsy.

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