Immunologic factors related to survival and performance in neonatal swine

Jeff W. Tyler From the Departments of Clinical Pathology (Tyler, Cullor, Douglas) and Medicine (Thurmond), School of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Science (Parker), University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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James S. Cullor From the Departments of Clinical Pathology (Tyler, Cullor, Douglas) and Medicine (Thurmond), School of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Science (Parker), University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Mark C. Thurmond From the Departments of Clinical Pathology (Tyler, Cullor, Douglas) and Medicine (Thurmond), School of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Science (Parker), University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Vicki L. Douglas From the Departments of Clinical Pathology (Tyler, Cullor, Douglas) and Medicine (Thurmond), School of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Science (Parker), University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Kent M. Parker From the Departments of Clinical Pathology (Tyler, Cullor, Douglas) and Medicine (Thurmond), School of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Animal Science (Parker), University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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SUMMARY

Logistic regression was used to develop models predicting preweaning survival in 334 neonatal swine. Measured risk factors included birth weight, litter size (live born), dam parity, serum IgG concentration, serum elisa titers recognizing common gram-negative core antigens, and serum concentrations of the third component of complement. Larger birth weights were associated with increased probability of preweaning survival. The highest mortality was observed in litters with more than 12 pigs. Pigs with serum concentration of the third component of complement (C3) in the lowest stratum, < 20% adult pooled C3 standard (APC3), had reduced mortality, compared with high (> 38% APC3) and middle (20 to 38% APC3) groups. Associations between all other variables, including total serum IgG concentration and preweaning survival were not significant. Few pigs had hypogammaglobulinemia, < 3% of the study population had serum IgG concentrations < 1 g/dl. Of all measured variables, only birth weight and dam parity were significant predictors of preweaning gain. Larger pigs and pigs born to third or greater parity dams had more preweaning gain than other pigs.

SUMMARY

Logistic regression was used to develop models predicting preweaning survival in 334 neonatal swine. Measured risk factors included birth weight, litter size (live born), dam parity, serum IgG concentration, serum elisa titers recognizing common gram-negative core antigens, and serum concentrations of the third component of complement. Larger birth weights were associated with increased probability of preweaning survival. The highest mortality was observed in litters with more than 12 pigs. Pigs with serum concentration of the third component of complement (C3) in the lowest stratum, < 20% adult pooled C3 standard (APC3), had reduced mortality, compared with high (> 38% APC3) and middle (20 to 38% APC3) groups. Associations between all other variables, including total serum IgG concentration and preweaning survival were not significant. Few pigs had hypogammaglobulinemia, < 3% of the study population had serum IgG concentrations < 1 g/dl. Of all measured variables, only birth weight and dam parity were significant predictors of preweaning gain. Larger pigs and pigs born to third or greater parity dams had more preweaning gain than other pigs.

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