Methods for detection of immune-mediated neutropenia in horses, using antineutrophil serum of rabbit origin

Nemi C. Jain From the Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Dr. Vegad was a Visiting Professor of Pathology from the College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Jabalpur-482001, India.

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J. L. Vegad From the Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Dr. Vegad was a Visiting Professor of Pathology from the College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Jabalpur-482001, India.

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C. S. Kono From the Department of Clinical Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Dr. Vegad was a Visiting Professor of Pathology from the College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Jabalpur-482001, India.

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SUMMARY

Equine neutrophil antibody was raised in rabbits inoculated with equine neutrophils isolated to purity > 99.0%, using Percoll density-gradient sedimentation. Neutrophil antibody was detected by use of agar gel diffusion, leukoagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence, staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G binding, and phagocytic inhibition techniques.

Precipitin lines and leukoagglutination were seen in antiserum dilutions of 1:4 and 1:64, respectively. The specific nature of leukoagglutination was characterized by the formation of rosette-like clumps of neutrophils. Specific bright membranous fluorescence was seen in neutrophils treated with the antiserum and exposed to fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin, and staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G. Whereas the indirect immunofluorescence and protein G-binding tests were equally sensitive and resulted in titer of 1:256, the protein A-binding test was less sensitive and resulted in titer of only 1:32. Nonspecific binding of protein A and protein G was noticed as uniform or patchy cellular fluorescence in a small number of neutrophils. Treatment of neutrophils with antiserum up to dilution of 1:8 resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) suppression of phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles.

Thus, protein G-binding and indirect immunofluorescence tests are highly sensitive to detect neutrophil antibody and may be used to diagnose immune-mediated neutropenias in horses and, possibly, in other animal species.

SUMMARY

Equine neutrophil antibody was raised in rabbits inoculated with equine neutrophils isolated to purity > 99.0%, using Percoll density-gradient sedimentation. Neutrophil antibody was detected by use of agar gel diffusion, leukoagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence, staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G binding, and phagocytic inhibition techniques.

Precipitin lines and leukoagglutination were seen in antiserum dilutions of 1:4 and 1:64, respectively. The specific nature of leukoagglutination was characterized by the formation of rosette-like clumps of neutrophils. Specific bright membranous fluorescence was seen in neutrophils treated with the antiserum and exposed to fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin, and staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G. Whereas the indirect immunofluorescence and protein G-binding tests were equally sensitive and resulted in titer of 1:256, the protein A-binding test was less sensitive and resulted in titer of only 1:32. Nonspecific binding of protein A and protein G was noticed as uniform or patchy cellular fluorescence in a small number of neutrophils. Treatment of neutrophils with antiserum up to dilution of 1:8 resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) suppression of phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles.

Thus, protein G-binding and indirect immunofluorescence tests are highly sensitive to detect neutrophil antibody and may be used to diagnose immune-mediated neutropenias in horses and, possibly, in other animal species.

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