Antibodies to bovine parvovirus acquired by neonatal pigs through ingestion of virus and antibody in the diet

W. L. Mengeling From the USDA, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010.

Search for other papers by W. L. Mengeling in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
and
P. J. Matthews From the USDA, National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010.

Search for other papers by P. J. Matthews in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM

Click on author name to view affiliation information

SUMMARY

The ability of pigs to respond immunologically to ingestion of bovine parvovirus (bpv) was tested by feeding 4 cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (cdcd) pigs a live virus-contaminated, liquid diet for the first 4 weeks of life. Virus-neutralizing (vn) antibodies were detected in the serum of 2 of the 4 pigs when they were 4 weeks old. Antibody titer remained at about the same level for several weeks, then decreased during the remainder of the 29-week interval of testing. The relative reactivity of these sera based on results of indirect immunofluorescence paralleled the corresponding vn titer. Neither of the other 2 pigs exposed to bpv had any appreciable immune response. The potential for passive acquisition of antibody from the diet was tested by feeding 4 other cdcd pigs bovine colostrum containing antibodies to bpv and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) for the first 2 days of life. All had serum vn antibodies for both viruses when they were tested at 2 days of age. The decay rate of the heterologous, passively acquired antibody was approximately linear; however, antibody half-life was relatively short, about 3.5 days, and titers were no longer detectable when pigs were 4 weeks (bpv) and 6 weeks (bvdv) old. An additional 4 cdcd pigs fed a liquid diet without virus or antibody remained free of any appreciable serum reactivity for either bpv or bvdv. Results supported the hypothesis that antibodies for bpv previously detected in the serum of pigs and people may reflect ingestion of virus-contaminated bovine milk or milk products.

SUMMARY

The ability of pigs to respond immunologically to ingestion of bovine parvovirus (bpv) was tested by feeding 4 cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived (cdcd) pigs a live virus-contaminated, liquid diet for the first 4 weeks of life. Virus-neutralizing (vn) antibodies were detected in the serum of 2 of the 4 pigs when they were 4 weeks old. Antibody titer remained at about the same level for several weeks, then decreased during the remainder of the 29-week interval of testing. The relative reactivity of these sera based on results of indirect immunofluorescence paralleled the corresponding vn titer. Neither of the other 2 pigs exposed to bpv had any appreciable immune response. The potential for passive acquisition of antibody from the diet was tested by feeding 4 other cdcd pigs bovine colostrum containing antibodies to bpv and bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) for the first 2 days of life. All had serum vn antibodies for both viruses when they were tested at 2 days of age. The decay rate of the heterologous, passively acquired antibody was approximately linear; however, antibody half-life was relatively short, about 3.5 days, and titers were no longer detectable when pigs were 4 weeks (bpv) and 6 weeks (bvdv) old. An additional 4 cdcd pigs fed a liquid diet without virus or antibody remained free of any appreciable serum reactivity for either bpv or bvdv. Results supported the hypothesis that antibodies for bpv previously detected in the serum of pigs and people may reflect ingestion of virus-contaminated bovine milk or milk products.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 37 37 5
PDF Downloads 23 23 0
Advertisement