Effects of milbemycin oxime on adult hookworms in dogs with naturally acquired infections

Dwight D. Bowman From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (Bowman), and Pathology (Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 and from the Agricultural Division, CIBA-GEIGY Corp, Greensboro, NC 27419 (Hepler).

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Robert C. Johnson From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (Bowman), and Pathology (Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 and from the Agricultural Division, CIBA-GEIGY Corp, Greensboro, NC 27419 (Hepler).

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Douglas I. Hepler From the Departments of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology (Bowman), and Pathology (Johnson), New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 and from the Agricultural Division, CIBA-GEIGY Corp, Greensboro, NC 27419 (Hepler).

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SUMMARY

Previous work indicated that adult Ancylostoma caninum can be removed from experimentally infected dogs, using a formulation of milbemycin oxime at dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight. To determine the efficacy of this treatment in dogs naturally infected with adult hookworms, 24 mixed-breed dogs with patent hookworm infections were purchased from an out-of-state vendor, and 6 male and 6 female dogs were assigned to either a control group or a group that would be treated. Dogs were treated 10 days after their arrival and were euthanatized 1 week after treatment. Beginning 3 days before treatment, fecal samples were collected daily from all dogs, and the number of Ancylostoma eggs per gram of dry weight of feces was determined from each sample. By 1 week after treatment, the mean number of eggs being passed by the treated dogs had dropped from 12,700 to 10 eggs/g of dried feces; there was no apparent change in fecal egg counts for dogs of the control group. At necropsy, the mean number of adult A caninum in dogs of the treated and control groups was 1.3 and 56, respectively; in these naturally infected dogs, efficacy of treatment was calculated to be 97.8%. The mean number of adult Trichuris vulpis recovered in dogs of the control and treated groups at necropsy was 24 and 0, respectively, which yielded treatment efficacy of 100%. Although Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis appeared also to be removed by use of this dosage, too few dogs were in the study to calculate meaningful efficacies. The milbemycin oxime formulation appeared to have no effect on the cestodes (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium caninum) and spirurids (Physaloptera rara) that were present in some dogs.

SUMMARY

Previous work indicated that adult Ancylostoma caninum can be removed from experimentally infected dogs, using a formulation of milbemycin oxime at dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight. To determine the efficacy of this treatment in dogs naturally infected with adult hookworms, 24 mixed-breed dogs with patent hookworm infections were purchased from an out-of-state vendor, and 6 male and 6 female dogs were assigned to either a control group or a group that would be treated. Dogs were treated 10 days after their arrival and were euthanatized 1 week after treatment. Beginning 3 days before treatment, fecal samples were collected daily from all dogs, and the number of Ancylostoma eggs per gram of dry weight of feces was determined from each sample. By 1 week after treatment, the mean number of eggs being passed by the treated dogs had dropped from 12,700 to 10 eggs/g of dried feces; there was no apparent change in fecal egg counts for dogs of the control group. At necropsy, the mean number of adult A caninum in dogs of the treated and control groups was 1.3 and 56, respectively; in these naturally infected dogs, efficacy of treatment was calculated to be 97.8%. The mean number of adult Trichuris vulpis recovered in dogs of the control and treated groups at necropsy was 24 and 0, respectively, which yielded treatment efficacy of 100%. Although Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis appeared also to be removed by use of this dosage, too few dogs were in the study to calculate meaningful efficacies. The milbemycin oxime formulation appeared to have no effect on the cestodes (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium caninum) and spirurids (Physaloptera rara) that were present in some dogs.

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