Prevention of reperfusion injury in surgically induced gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs

Stephen F. Badylak From the Hillenbrand Biomedical Engineering Center (Badylak, Jeffries), and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (Lantz).

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Gary C. Lantz From the Hillenbrand Biomedical Engineering Center (Badylak, Jeffries), and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (Lantz).

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Melanie Jeffries From the Hillenbrand Biomedical Engineering Center (Badylak, Jeffries), and the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (Lantz).

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SUMMARY

Canine gastric dilatation-volvulus (gdv) is a naturally acquired condition of large-breed dogs primarily and is associated with high mortality. The clinical course suggests that reperfusion injury may be important in the pathogenesis of gdv. To evaluate the role of xanthine oxidase and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation (which are purported mechanisms of reperfusion injury) in the pathogenesis of gdv-related mortality, we created experimental gdv in 21 dogs. These dogs were then treated with either allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor), U74006F (an experimental lipid peroxidation inhibitor), or saline solution (NaCl, 0.85%). Three of 8 dogs died in the allopurinol-treated group, none of 5 died in the U74006F-treated group, and 4 of 8 died in the saline solution-treated group. Tissue malondialdehyde concentration, a nonspecific indicator of lipid peroxidation, was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the duodenum, jejunum, colon, liver, and pancreas of the saline-solution treated and allopurinol-treated dogs than in the same tissues of the U74006F-treated dogs after surgical correction of the gdv (ie, during reperfusion), compared with malondialdehyde concentrations determined before inducing gdv. The results of this study support the concept that lipid peroxidation associated with reperfusion injury is important in the pathogenesis and high mortality of canine gdv. Furthermore, this lipid peroxidation and mortality may be preventable by appropriate and timely treatment.

SUMMARY

Canine gastric dilatation-volvulus (gdv) is a naturally acquired condition of large-breed dogs primarily and is associated with high mortality. The clinical course suggests that reperfusion injury may be important in the pathogenesis of gdv. To evaluate the role of xanthine oxidase and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation (which are purported mechanisms of reperfusion injury) in the pathogenesis of gdv-related mortality, we created experimental gdv in 21 dogs. These dogs were then treated with either allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor), U74006F (an experimental lipid peroxidation inhibitor), or saline solution (NaCl, 0.85%). Three of 8 dogs died in the allopurinol-treated group, none of 5 died in the U74006F-treated group, and 4 of 8 died in the saline solution-treated group. Tissue malondialdehyde concentration, a nonspecific indicator of lipid peroxidation, was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the duodenum, jejunum, colon, liver, and pancreas of the saline-solution treated and allopurinol-treated dogs than in the same tissues of the U74006F-treated dogs after surgical correction of the gdv (ie, during reperfusion), compared with malondialdehyde concentrations determined before inducing gdv. The results of this study support the concept that lipid peroxidation associated with reperfusion injury is important in the pathogenesis and high mortality of canine gdv. Furthermore, this lipid peroxidation and mortality may be preventable by appropriate and timely treatment.

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