Hemodynamic effects of carbon dioxide during intermittent positive-pressure ventilation in horses

Ann E. Wagner From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Richard M. Bednarski From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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William W. Muir III From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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SUMMARY

The hemodynamic effects of high arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) during anesthesia in horses were studied. Eight horses were anesthetized with xylazine, guaifenesin, and thiamylal, and were maintained with halothane in oxygen (end-tidal halothane concentration = 1.15%). Baseline data were collected while the horses were breathing spontaneously; then the horses were subjected to intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, and data were collected during normocapnia (PaCO2, 35 to 45 mm of Hg), moderate hypercapnia (PaCO2, 60 to 70 mm of Hg), and severe hypercapnia (PaCO2, 75 to 85 mm of Hg). Hypercapnia was induced by adding carbon dioxide to the inspired gas mixture. Moderate and severe hypercapnia were associated with significant (P < 0.05) increases in aortic blood pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, maximal rate of increase and decrease in left ventricular pressure (positive and negative dP/dtmax, respectively), and median arterial blood flow, and decreased time constant for ventricular relaxation. These hemodynamic changes were accompanied by increased plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. Administration of the β-blocking drug, propranolol hydrochloride, markedly depressed the response to hypercapnia. This study confirmed that in horses, hypercapnia is associated with augmentation of cardiovascular function.

SUMMARY

The hemodynamic effects of high arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) during anesthesia in horses were studied. Eight horses were anesthetized with xylazine, guaifenesin, and thiamylal, and were maintained with halothane in oxygen (end-tidal halothane concentration = 1.15%). Baseline data were collected while the horses were breathing spontaneously; then the horses were subjected to intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, and data were collected during normocapnia (PaCO2, 35 to 45 mm of Hg), moderate hypercapnia (PaCO2, 60 to 70 mm of Hg), and severe hypercapnia (PaCO2, 75 to 85 mm of Hg). Hypercapnia was induced by adding carbon dioxide to the inspired gas mixture. Moderate and severe hypercapnia were associated with significant (P < 0.05) increases in aortic blood pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, maximal rate of increase and decrease in left ventricular pressure (positive and negative dP/dtmax, respectively), and median arterial blood flow, and decreased time constant for ventricular relaxation. These hemodynamic changes were accompanied by increased plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. Administration of the β-blocking drug, propranolol hydrochloride, markedly depressed the response to hypercapnia. This study confirmed that in horses, hypercapnia is associated with augmentation of cardiovascular function.

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