Pulmonary lesions induced by 3-methylindole and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in calves

W. L. Castleman From the Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (Castleman) and the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (Lacy, Slauson, Atz).

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S. Lacy From the Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (Castleman) and the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (Lacy, Slauson, Atz).

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D. O. Slauson From the Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (Castleman) and the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (Lacy, Slauson, Atz).

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J. Atz From the Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (Castleman) and the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (Lacy, Slauson, Atz).

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SUMMARY

Our objectives were to describe the ultrastructural morphogenesis of pulmonary lesions induced by 3-methylindole in 30- to 45-day-old Holstein calves and to determine whether toxic exposure to 3-methylindole exacerbates pulmonary lesions induced by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Administration of 3-methylindole (0.25 g/kg) to calves resulted in interstitial edema and ultrastructural swelling of type-I alveolar epithelial cells and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells as early as 4 to 6 hours after intraruminal administration. More severe alveolar edema containing protein was associated with swelling of capillary endothelial cells at 2 days after administration. Proliferation of type-II alveolar epithelial cells was first observed at 2 days after 3-methylindole administration, and marked hyperplasia of type-II epithelial cells and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells was evident by 4 days after administration. Pulmonary cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase concentrations decreased significantly (P < 0.001) by 12 hours after administration and did not increase significantly again by 8 days after administration. Calves were inoculated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus 3 days after administration of 3-methylindole, and pulmonary lesions were assessed 5 days after viral inoculation. Viral replication was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy for viral antigen or by transmission electron microscropy in ciliated and nonciliated airway epithelial cells. Viral antigen was identified infrequently in alveolar macrophages and in type-II alveolar epithelial cells. 3-Methylindole exposure in calves did not result in more widespread distribution of viral antigen in alveolar tissue of respiratory syncytial virus-inoculated calves or in significant enhancement of viral pneumonia. The results indicated that young calves are susceptible to 3-methylindole-induced pulmonary injury and that nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells, type-I alveolar epithelial cells, and pulmonary endothelial cells are most susceptible to injury. The results failed to indicate that 3-methylindole pulmonary toxicosis significantly enhances respiratory disease induced by bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

SUMMARY

Our objectives were to describe the ultrastructural morphogenesis of pulmonary lesions induced by 3-methylindole in 30- to 45-day-old Holstein calves and to determine whether toxic exposure to 3-methylindole exacerbates pulmonary lesions induced by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Administration of 3-methylindole (0.25 g/kg) to calves resulted in interstitial edema and ultrastructural swelling of type-I alveolar epithelial cells and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells as early as 4 to 6 hours after intraruminal administration. More severe alveolar edema containing protein was associated with swelling of capillary endothelial cells at 2 days after administration. Proliferation of type-II alveolar epithelial cells was first observed at 2 days after 3-methylindole administration, and marked hyperplasia of type-II epithelial cells and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells was evident by 4 days after administration. Pulmonary cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase concentrations decreased significantly (P < 0.001) by 12 hours after administration and did not increase significantly again by 8 days after administration. Calves were inoculated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus 3 days after administration of 3-methylindole, and pulmonary lesions were assessed 5 days after viral inoculation. Viral replication was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy for viral antigen or by transmission electron microscropy in ciliated and nonciliated airway epithelial cells. Viral antigen was identified infrequently in alveolar macrophages and in type-II alveolar epithelial cells. 3-Methylindole exposure in calves did not result in more widespread distribution of viral antigen in alveolar tissue of respiratory syncytial virus-inoculated calves or in significant enhancement of viral pneumonia. The results indicated that young calves are susceptible to 3-methylindole-induced pulmonary injury and that nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells, type-I alveolar epithelial cells, and pulmonary endothelial cells are most susceptible to injury. The results failed to indicate that 3-methylindole pulmonary toxicosis significantly enhances respiratory disease induced by bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

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