Pharmacokinetics of single doses of digoxin administered intravenously to ducks, roosters, and turkeys

W. M. Pedersoli From the Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology (Pedersoli, Lee), Anatomy and Histology (Krista), Pathology and Parasitology (Spano), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Pharmacal Sciences (Ravis), School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, AL 36849.

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W. R. Ravis From the Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology (Pedersoli, Lee), Anatomy and Histology (Krista), Pathology and Parasitology (Spano), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Pharmacal Sciences (Ravis), School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, AL 36849.

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H. S. Lee From the Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology (Pedersoli, Lee), Anatomy and Histology (Krista), Pathology and Parasitology (Spano), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Pharmacal Sciences (Ravis), School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, AL 36849.

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L. M. Krista From the Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology (Pedersoli, Lee), Anatomy and Histology (Krista), Pathology and Parasitology (Spano), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Pharmacal Sciences (Ravis), School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, AL 36849.

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J. S. Spano From the Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology (Pedersoli, Lee), Anatomy and Histology (Krista), Pathology and Parasitology (Spano), College of Veterinary Medicine, and the Department of Pharmacal Sciences (Ravis), School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, AL 36849.

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SUMMARY

A single dose of digoxin was injected, iv, into 5 mature male turkeys (0.066 mg/kg of body weight), 8 male ducks (0.066 mg/kg), and 6 roosters (0.33 mg/kg). Twenty-three serial venous blood samples were collected before (baseline) and after the administration of digoxin to turkeys, ducks, and roosters. Plasma concentrations of digoxin were determined in duplicate by a radioimmunoassay that was validated for avian species. The plasma concentrations were best fitted by a 3 (turkeys, ducks)- and 2 (roosters)- compartment open model, with first-order elimination from the central compartment. Significant (P < 0.05) kinetic differences were determined among species. Mean half-life (t½) for ducks, roosters, and turkeys were 8.30 ± 2.70 (mean ± SD), 6.67 ± 3.50, and 23.7 ± 4.8 hours, respectively. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 14.7 ± 2.9, 3.13 ± 0.49, and 2.27 ± 0.36 L/kg, and total body clearance (cl) of drug was 1.54 ± 0.43, 0.461 ± 0.187, and 0.136 ± 0.022 L/h/kg for ducks, roosters, and turkeys, respectively. The mean residence time was 10.3 ± 3.9, 8.37 ± 4.97, and 16.8 ± 2.2 hours, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state and cl in ducks were several fold higher than that in turkeys. The terminal half-life of digoxin determined for ducks and roosters in this study was considerably shorter than those previously reported for several mammalian species.

SUMMARY

A single dose of digoxin was injected, iv, into 5 mature male turkeys (0.066 mg/kg of body weight), 8 male ducks (0.066 mg/kg), and 6 roosters (0.33 mg/kg). Twenty-three serial venous blood samples were collected before (baseline) and after the administration of digoxin to turkeys, ducks, and roosters. Plasma concentrations of digoxin were determined in duplicate by a radioimmunoassay that was validated for avian species. The plasma concentrations were best fitted by a 3 (turkeys, ducks)- and 2 (roosters)- compartment open model, with first-order elimination from the central compartment. Significant (P < 0.05) kinetic differences were determined among species. Mean half-life (t½) for ducks, roosters, and turkeys were 8.30 ± 2.70 (mean ± SD), 6.67 ± 3.50, and 23.7 ± 4.8 hours, respectively. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 14.7 ± 2.9, 3.13 ± 0.49, and 2.27 ± 0.36 L/kg, and total body clearance (cl) of drug was 1.54 ± 0.43, 0.461 ± 0.187, and 0.136 ± 0.022 L/h/kg for ducks, roosters, and turkeys, respectively. The mean residence time was 10.3 ± 3.9, 8.37 ± 4.97, and 16.8 ± 2.2 hours, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state and cl in ducks were several fold higher than that in turkeys. The terminal half-life of digoxin determined for ducks and roosters in this study was considerably shorter than those previously reported for several mammalian species.

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