Renal net acid and electrolyte excretion in an experimental model of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in sheep

D. Paul Lunn From the Departments of Medical Sciences (Lunn, McGuirk), Surgical Sciences (Smith) and Pathobiological Sciences (MacWilliams), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI 53706.

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 BVSc, MS
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Sheila M. McGuirk From the Departments of Medical Sciences (Lunn, McGuirk), Surgical Sciences (Smith) and Pathobiological Sciences (MacWilliams), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI 53706.

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 DVM, PhD
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Donald F. Smith From the Departments of Medical Sciences (Lunn, McGuirk), Surgical Sciences (Smith) and Pathobiological Sciences (MacWilliams), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI 53706.

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Peter S. MacWilliams From the Departments of Medical Sciences (Lunn, McGuirk), Surgical Sciences (Smith) and Pathobiological Sciences (MacWilliams), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Drive West, Madison, WI 53706.

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SUMMARY

Renal electrolyte and net acid excretion were characterized during generation and maintenance of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in a ruminant model. Two phases of renal response with regard to sodium and net acid excretion were documented. An initial decrease in net acid excretion was attributable to increase in bicarbonate excretion with associated increase in sodium excretion. As the metabolic disturbance became more advanced, a second phase of renal excretion was observed in which sodium and bicarbonate excretion were markedly decreased, leading to increase in net acid excretion and development of aciduria. Throughout the metabolic disturbance, chloride excretion was markedly decreased; potassium excretion also decreased. These changes were accompanied by increase in plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations. There was apparent failure to concentrate the urine optimally during the course of the metabolic disturbance, despite increasing plasma concentration of antidiuretic hormone.

SUMMARY

Renal electrolyte and net acid excretion were characterized during generation and maintenance of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in a ruminant model. Two phases of renal response with regard to sodium and net acid excretion were documented. An initial decrease in net acid excretion was attributable to increase in bicarbonate excretion with associated increase in sodium excretion. As the metabolic disturbance became more advanced, a second phase of renal excretion was observed in which sodium and bicarbonate excretion were markedly decreased, leading to increase in net acid excretion and development of aciduria. Throughout the metabolic disturbance, chloride excretion was markedly decreased; potassium excretion also decreased. These changes were accompanied by increase in plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations. There was apparent failure to concentrate the urine optimally during the course of the metabolic disturbance, despite increasing plasma concentration of antidiuretic hormone.

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