Retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after sedation with xylazine

M. P. Dooley From the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Dooley, Pineda, Hsu) and Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hopper), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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M. H. Pineda From the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Dooley, Pineda, Hsu) and Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hopper), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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J. G. Hopper From the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Dooley, Pineda, Hsu) and Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hopper), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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W. H. Hsu From the Departments of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (Dooley, Pineda, Hsu) and Veterinary Clinical Sciences (Hopper), College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

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SUMMARY

Retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine was examined. In experiment 1, the mean (± SD) spermatozoal concentration in urine collected by cystocentesis before ejaculation was 0.322 ± 0.645 × 106/ml. After ejaculation, motile spermatozoa were present in the urine collected by cystocentesis from 12 of 15 dogs, and the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine (5.139 ± 7.014 × 106/ml) was higher (P < 0.025) than the concentration in the urine collected before ejaculation. The percentage of the total number of spermatozoa that were displaced during ejaculation and flowed into the urinary bladder (retrograde flow) ranged from 0 to 99.75% (24.67 ± 33.98%).

In experiments 2 and 3, administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs induced retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder. In experiment 2, all dogs had spermatozoa in urine collected after xylazine administration, with motile spermatozoa present in the urine from 9 of 10 dogs. In experiment 3, urine collected from dogs before administration of xylazine was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa (0.063 ± 0.135 × 106/ml), whereas urine collected after administration of xylazine had more (P < 0.025) and motile spermatozoa (3.717 ± 4.273 × 106/ml).

In experiment 4, administration of xylazine to dogs after ejaculation did not increase the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine. Results indicate that spermatozoa flow into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs.

SUMMARY

Retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine was examined. In experiment 1, the mean (± SD) spermatozoal concentration in urine collected by cystocentesis before ejaculation was 0.322 ± 0.645 × 106/ml. After ejaculation, motile spermatozoa were present in the urine collected by cystocentesis from 12 of 15 dogs, and the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine (5.139 ± 7.014 × 106/ml) was higher (P < 0.025) than the concentration in the urine collected before ejaculation. The percentage of the total number of spermatozoa that were displaced during ejaculation and flowed into the urinary bladder (retrograde flow) ranged from 0 to 99.75% (24.67 ± 33.98%).

In experiments 2 and 3, administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs induced retrograde flow of spermatozoa into the urinary bladder. In experiment 2, all dogs had spermatozoa in urine collected after xylazine administration, with motile spermatozoa present in the urine from 9 of 10 dogs. In experiment 3, urine collected from dogs before administration of xylazine was azoospermic or contained few, nonmotile spermatozoa (0.063 ± 0.135 × 106/ml), whereas urine collected after administration of xylazine had more (P < 0.025) and motile spermatozoa (3.717 ± 4.273 × 106/ml).

In experiment 4, administration of xylazine to dogs after ejaculation did not increase the concentration of spermatozoa in the urine. Results indicate that spermatozoa flow into the urinary bladder of dogs during ejaculation or after administration of xylazine to sexually rested dogs.

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