Ultrasonographic-anatomic correlation and an imaging protocol of the normal canine kidney

A. K. W. Wood From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and Veterinary Anatomy, Universityof Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

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 MVSc, PhD
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P. H. McCarthy From the Departments of Veterinary Clinical Sciences and Veterinary Anatomy, Universityof Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

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SUMMARY

Ultrasonographic or anatomic observations or both were made of the kidneys of 26 dogs. The anatomic studies established precise correlations between the gross anatomic features of the organ and its ultrasonographic images obtained in transverse, sagittal, dorsal, and 2 oblique planes. Uniformily mottled echogenicity of the renal cortex could be clearly differentiated from the less echogenic renal medulla. In the middorsal plane, the papillae of the renal pyramids were directed towards the renal sinus. The bases of the pyramids were almost circular in outline in the midsagittal images and the renal crest was seen as an echogenic line. Although the renal sinus was highly echogenic, neither the renal pelvis nor its recesses were detected. The walls of each of the interlobar arteries provided echogenic parallel lines, passing in the renal recesses between the renal pyramids. Arcuate arteries were demonstrated at the corticomedullary junction and interlobular arteries were detected within the renal cortex.

For the right kidney, transverse images were obtained with the ultrasonographic transducer at the last 2 intercostal spaces; images in the dorsal, sagittal, and oblique planes were obtained with the transducer placed over the caudal extremity of the kidney. In the left kidney, transverse images were made with the transducers at, and caudal to, the last intercostal space; images in the dorsal, sagittal, and oblique planes were obtained with the transducer placed over the lateral border of the kidney. The use of such a protocol ensures that the entire organ is inspected and a diagnosis of either a normal or pathologic kidney is made.

SUMMARY

Ultrasonographic or anatomic observations or both were made of the kidneys of 26 dogs. The anatomic studies established precise correlations between the gross anatomic features of the organ and its ultrasonographic images obtained in transverse, sagittal, dorsal, and 2 oblique planes. Uniformily mottled echogenicity of the renal cortex could be clearly differentiated from the less echogenic renal medulla. In the middorsal plane, the papillae of the renal pyramids were directed towards the renal sinus. The bases of the pyramids were almost circular in outline in the midsagittal images and the renal crest was seen as an echogenic line. Although the renal sinus was highly echogenic, neither the renal pelvis nor its recesses were detected. The walls of each of the interlobar arteries provided echogenic parallel lines, passing in the renal recesses between the renal pyramids. Arcuate arteries were demonstrated at the corticomedullary junction and interlobular arteries were detected within the renal cortex.

For the right kidney, transverse images were obtained with the ultrasonographic transducer at the last 2 intercostal spaces; images in the dorsal, sagittal, and oblique planes were obtained with the transducer placed over the caudal extremity of the kidney. In the left kidney, transverse images were made with the transducers at, and caudal to, the last intercostal space; images in the dorsal, sagittal, and oblique planes were obtained with the transducer placed over the lateral border of the kidney. The use of such a protocol ensures that the entire organ is inspected and a diagnosis of either a normal or pathologic kidney is made.

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