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significant decrease in plasma cholesterol when dosed at 10 mg/kg PO every 24 hours. 9 A more recent pharmacokinetic study has shown that an oral dose of 20 mg/kg atorvastatin in orange-winged Amazon parrots ( A amazonica ) was able to reach plasma

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

veterinary medicine; however, the lack of pharmacokinetic data in turtles often makes it challenging to evaluate potential clinical efficacy despite the availability of sensitivity results. 5 , 6 Ceftazidime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is often used

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

significantly impact the pharmacokinetics and, consequently, the pharmacodynamics of drugs metabolized by these enzymes. Exogenous and endogenous factors, such as genetic variation, physiological conditions, age, environmental factors, and interactions between

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. 10 The effects of gentamicin in these snakes highlight the need for evidence-based, species-specific dosing of aminoglycosides in reptiles to help avoid preventable adverse effects. Amikacin pharmacokinetic studies in reptiles are limited

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

administration to veal calves are limited. Furthermore, marked differences in drug pharmacokinetics have been observed between young and adult animals. 11 Differences in drug distribution and elimination in young food-producing animals are of particular concern

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

–3 Marbofloxacin has the highest activity of the veterinary fluoroquinolones against P aeruginosa . 2 The drug is well absorbed after oral administration and has a wide safety margin with few adverse effects in dogs. 3,4 Marbofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

food or large amounts of tablets 20 ). The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate the effects of oral administration of AC and urine alkalinization (via oral administration of sodium bicarbonate) on the pharmacokinetics of carprofen

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Investigators of several studies 9–18 have reported alterations in plasma pharmacokinetics of drugs in diseased animals, compared with results for their healthy counterparts. Investigators of a recent study 7 found a correlation between low milk production and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the feasibility of using multivariate cluster analysis to meta-analyze pharmacokinetic data obtained from studies of pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate in cattle and identify factors that could account for variability in pharmacokinetic parameters among studies.

Sample Population—Data from original studies of the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate in cattle in the database of the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank.

Procedure—Mean plasma or serum ampicillin concentration versus time data and potential factors that may have affected the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate were obtained from each study. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed, and values of pharmacokinetic parameters were clustered by use of multivariate cluster analysis. Practical importance of the clusters was evaluated by comparing the frequency of factors that may have affected the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate among clusters.

Results—A single cluster with lower mean values for clearance and volume of distribution of ampicillin trihydrate administered PO, compared with other clusters, was identified. This cluster included studies that used preruminant calves in which feeding was withheld overnight and calves to which probenecid had been administered concurrently.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Meta-analysis was successful in detecting a potential subpopulation of cattle for which factors that explained differences in pharmacokinetic parameters could be identified. Accurate estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters are important for the calculation of dosages and extended withdrawal intervals after extralabel drug administration. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:108–112)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and pyrexia. 2 , 6 , 7 Only a few reports on acetaminophen (APAP) pharmacokinetics in poultry are present in the literature. Its pharmacokinetics were reported following a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg to chickens and turkeys and after an IP injection

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association