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through both the outer and inner guards and rotated against the nasopharyngeal mucosa; after several rotations were made, the swab was retracted back through the inner and outer guards and removed from the nasal cavity. The swab portion was then placed

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

study every 3 to 5 weeks between September 2005 and May 2006. In the weanlings and adult horses, a 16-inch nasopharyngeal swab c was inserted into the left or right nostril via the ventral meatus to the level of the pharynx until swallowing was induced

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

nasopharyngeal swab (DNP), transtracheal wash (TTW), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) being most common. 11 Each sampling method has advantages and disadvantages, but research shows that agreement among the different methods for the detection of bacterial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Before transport to the research farm, calves were judged to be healthy and had negative results for M haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida , and B trehalosi on nasopharyngeal swab specimens. In addition, serum antibody titers against M haemolytica lkt

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of intranasal exposure to live leukotoxin (LktA)-deficient Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) at the time of feedyard arrival on nasopharyngeal colonization by wildtype MH in calves.

Animals—200 calves.

Procedure—Calves from Arkansas (AR calves; n = 100; mean body weight, 205 kg) were purchased from an order buyer barn. Calves from New Mexico (NM calves; n = 100; mean body weight, 188 kg) were obtained from a single ranch. Calves were transported to a feedyard, where half of each group was exposed intranasally with LktA-deficient MH at the time of arrival. Calves were observed daily for respiratory tract disease (RTD), and nasal swab specimens were collected periodically to determine nasopharyngeal colonization status with MH. Serum samples were assayed for antibodies to MH.

Results—15 AR calves had nasopharyngeal colonization by wild-type MH at the order buyer barn, whereas none of the NM calves had nasopharyngeal colonization. Intranasal exposure to LktA-deficient MH elicited an increase in serum antibody titers against MH in NM calves, but titers were less in NM calves treated for RTD. Exposure of NM calves to LktA-deficient MH offered protection from nasopharyngeal colonization by wild-type MH.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure of calves to LktA-deficient MH elicited an increase in serum antibody titers against MH and decreased colonization of the nasopharynx by wild-type MH. Earlier exposure would likely allow an immune response to develop before transportation and offer protection from nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumonia caused by wild-type MH. ( Am J Vet Res 2003;64:580–585)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether streptococcal pneumonia is caused by strains of Streptococcus zooepidemicus similar to those obtained from the tonsils of healthy horses.

Sample Population—5 tonsils from healthy horses, 8 tracheal washes and 6 lung specimens from foals with pneumonia, and 5 nasopharyngeal swab specimens from donkeys with acute bronchopneumonia.

Procedure—Variable M-like protectively immunogenic SzP proteins of 5 isolates of S zooepidemicus from each tonsil and clinical specimen were compared, using immunoblots. The SzP gene of 13 isolates representative of various SzP immunoblot phenotypes from 1 healthy horse and 9 horses and donkeys with pneumonia were sequenced and compared. Cell-associated hyaluronic acid concentration and resistance to phagocytosis of some isolates were measured.

Results—Tonsils of each healthy horse were colonized by several SzP phenotypes similar to those of foals or donkeys with pneumonia. In contrast, multiple isolates from animals with pneumonia had the same SzP phenotype, indicating infection by a single strain or clone. Analysis of the SzP sequence confirmed that differences in immunoblot phenotype were associated with sequence differences and that several SzP genotypes were in healthy horses and animals with pneumonia. Isolates with high concentrations of cell-associated hyaluronic acid were more resistant to phagocytosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An SzP-specific immunoblot is a useful, sensitive measure of diversity among strains of S zooepidemicus. Single strains with SzP phenotypes similar to those found in tonsils of healthy horses cause pneumonia. Because of the diversity of SzP phenotype and genotype among isolates from animals with pneumonia, SzP phenotype is not an important determinant of invasiveness or epizootic capabilities. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:162–166)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To develop a system to monitor and detect acute infections of the upper respiratory tract (ie, nares, nasopharynx, and pharynx) in horses and to assess the association among specific viral infections, risk factors, and clinical signs of disease.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

151 horses with clinical signs of acute infectious upper respiratory tract disease (IURD) from 56 premises in Colorado.

Procedure

Health management data, blood samples, and nasal or nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained for 151 horses with clinical signs of acute IUBD. Of these horses, 112 had an additional blood sample obtained during convalescence and were considered to have complete sample sets. Samples were tested for evidence of respiratory tract infection by use of ELISA, virus isolation, and serologic testing of paired serum samples.

Results

Viral infections were identified in 65 horses with complete sample sets; influenza virus infection was identified in 43 horses, equine herpesvirus (EHV) infection in 18, and mixed influenza virus and EHV infections in 4. On 14 premises, samples were obtained from more than 1 affected horse. Viral infections were identified in horses on 11 of 14 premises. Equine herpesviruses were isolated from 10 horses. A relationship was not found between vaccination history and identification of EHV or influenza virus infections. An infection with EHV was less likely to be identified in horses with initial (acute) antibody titers > 1:16 to EHV.

Clinical Implications

Influenza virus (specifically, A/equine/2) was the most common virus associated with acute IURD. Use of multiple diagnostic tests and obtaining samples from more than 1 horse in an outbreak may improve detection of viral infections. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:385-390)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

corneal ulcers or identified by PCR assay in conjunctival swab specimens of 50 dogs without extraocular disease, supporting a causative role for CHV-1 in the corneal ulcers observed in the 2 dogs. Nasopharyngeal stenosis in a dog 385 Nasopharyngeal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

cavity was evident in radiographic views of the skull. Endoscopy of the nasal cavities revealed only clear nasal discharge. Tracheoscopy revealed pale mucosa and vascularization greater than that expected in a healthy sheep. A swab sample obtained from

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

recorded when available. Also recorded were data regarding the sample type (nasal swab specimen or fluid obtained during nasopharyngeal or guttural pouch lavage) and collection time relative to the onset of clinical signs and initiation of antimicrobial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association