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uterine rupture. 2 Twin pregnancies are rare in South American camelids but can potentially result in dystocia. Different surgical approaches for a cesarean section in cases of dystocia have been described. 3–7 Although the technique for cesarean section

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The reported incidence of dystocia requiring mechanical extraction or cesarean section in dairy heifers and cows in the United States is 6.8% and 3.5%, respectively. 1 In comparison, fewer beef heifers and cows require such intervention (3.9% and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Cesarean section (C-section) is the most common abdominal surgery performed in small ruminants. 1 Incidence can vary with indication and by geographic location, with some reports stating 482 of 15,584 (3%) of small ruminant

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Cesarean section is performed in approximately 15% to 25% of mares admitted to equine referral hospitals because of dystocia. 1,2 It may also be performed as an emergency procedure in mares with laminitis, endotoxemia, colic, peritonitis, or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Cesarean section (C-section) is the most common abdominal surgery performed on small ruminants. 1 Incidence of dystocia requiring surgical intervention has been described as affecting as many as 482 of 15,584 (3%) small ruminant

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

From 1980 to 1989, 8 cesarean sections were performed on an elective basis in 5 mares. Four mares had partially obstructed pelvic canals; 2 of these mares had previously lost foals because of dystocia. Cervical adhesions that might obstruct passage of the fetus through the pelvic canal was suspected in the fifth mare. Cesarean section was performed prior to mares entering the first stage of labor. Readiness for birth was estimated by development of the mare's mammary gland and the presence of colostrum in the udder. A ventral midline celiotomy provided excellent exposure and healed without complications in all instances. Eight viable foals were produced. One foal developed bacterial pneumonia and septicemia after surgery and died. Follow-up evaluation of the 7 foals discharged from the hospital failed to reveal complications associated with elective cesarean section.

All mares survived the procedure. Fetal membranes were retained for up to 72 hours following surgery; however, systemic complications secondary to retained placenta did not develop. Three mares were bred subsequent to elective cesarean sections, with each mare conceiving the year following surgery. Three foals were produced by 1 mare and 2 foals have been produced by another mare by elective cesarean sections.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To evaluate use of propofol-isoflurane as an anesthetic regimen for cesarean section in dogs and to compare this protocol with epidural analgesia and anesthesia induced with thiopental sodium.

Design—

Prospective study.

Animals—

141 bitches admitted for cesarean section.

Procedure—

General anesthesia was induced with propofol in 141 dogs undergoing cesarean section. After intubation, anesthesia was maintained by means of inhalation of isoflurane (0.5 to 2.0%), administered in a 65:35 mixture of oxygen:nitrous oxide. After induction, 20 minutes were allowed to elapse before delivery of puppies was begun. Viability of neonates was ascertained immediately after surgery. Owners were interviewed by telephone to determine survival of puppies during the postoperative period. Survival rates from this study were compared with those from cesarean section performed on dogs under epidural analgesia or under general anesthesia induced with thiopental sodium.

Results—

Induction, maintenance, and recovery were problem free in all bitches. Of 412 puppies delivered by cesarean section, 293 (71%) survived, 13 (3%) were born alive but died within 20 minutes of delivery, and 106 (26%) were stillborn. Survival rate for puppies from dams induced with propofol-isoflurane was similar to that for puppies from dams receiving epidural analgesia. Survival rate for puppies delivered by cesarean section performed on dams under general anesthesia was higher for dams induced with propofol than for dams induced with thiopental sodium.

Clinical Implications—

General anesthesia induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane is acceptable for performing cesarean section in dogs,. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:313–317)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe dogs undergoing cesarean section in the United States and Canada, to determine perioperative management, and to calculate survival proportions.

Design

Multicenter prospective case series.

Animals

3,908 puppies from 808 dams.

Results

Survival rates immediately, 2 hours, and 7 days after delivery were 92, 87, and 80%, respectively, for puppies delivered by cesarean section (n = 3,410) and 86, 83, and 75%, respectively, for puppies born naturally (498). For 614 of 807 (76%) litters, all puppies delivered by cesarean section were born alive. Maternal mortality rate was 1 % (n = 9). Of 776 surgeries, 453 (58%) were done on an emergency basis. The most common breeds of dogs that underwent emergency surgery were Bulldog, Labrador Retriever, Boxer, Corgis, and Chihuahua. The most common breeds of dogs that underwent elective surgery were Bulldog, Labrador Retriever, Mastiff, Golden Retriever, and Yorkshire Terrier. The most common methods of inducing and maintaining anesthesia were administration of isoflurane for induction and maintenance (n = 266; 34%) and administration of propofol for induction followed by administration of isoflurane for maintenance (237; 30%).

Clinical Implications

Mortality rates of dams and puppies undergoing cesarean section in the United States and Canada are low. Knowledge of mortality rates should be useful to veterinarians when advising clients on the likelihood of puppy and dam survival associated with cesarean section. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:365-369)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats undergoing a cesarean section because of dystocia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—85 sheep and 25 goats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was obtained on signalment, history, physical examination findings, anesthesia protocol, surgical technique, number of lambs or kids delivered, pre- and postoperative treatments, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone conversations with owners.

Results—The proportion of sheep admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital during the study period that underwent a cesarean section (4.4%) was significantly higher than the proportion of goats that did (2.2%). Pygmy goats were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. The most common reason for cesarean section was inadequate dilatation of the cervix. The most common surgical approach was via the left paralumbar fossa. Two hundred one lambs and kids were delivered, of which 116 were dead at delivery or died shortly afterward. Forty-two of the 65 dams with 1 or more dead fetuses had been in stage-2 labor for > 6 hours, and fetal death was significantly associated with a prolonged duration of dystocia. The most common complication following surgery was retained placenta (n = 49). Use of antimicrobials was associated with a lower rate of complications. All 16 dams that were rebred became pregnant and had no problems with dystocia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that cesarean section is an effective method of resolving dystocia in sheep and goats and does not adversely affect subsequent fertility. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:275–279)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association