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federal surveillance program for avian influenza virus, the diagnostic laboratory suggested performing RRT-PCR assay for detection of avian influenza virus and simultaneously initiated virus isolation for other potential viral pathogens in birds. Results

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Recent media and news reports and other information implicate wild birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and Eastern Europe. Although there is little information concerning highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A double-antibody sandwich elisa (das-elisa) was developed for detection of avian influenza virus (aiv) antigen. A monoclonal antibody to the viral nucleoprotein (np) was used to coat the elisa plates. A direct das-elisa and an indirect das-elisa were evaluated. In the direct das-elisa, monoclonal antibody to the aiv np conjugated with horseradish peroxidase was used. The direct das-elisa was evaluated for its sensitivity to detect purified np; this procedure detected as little as 0.1 ng. In the indirect das-elisa, rabbit np antibody and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobin were used as primary and secondary antibodies, respectively. The indirect das-elisa was evaluated for its ability to detect the aiv antigen in tracheal and cloacal specimens from turkeys inoculated with aiv. Results of indirect das-elisa were compared with those of conventional virus isolation. Percentage agreement between indirect das-elisa and virus isolation in aiv-positive samples was found to be 76.1% and, in aiv-negative samples, it was found to be 82.1%. These results in dicate that the das-elisa might be a viable alternative to virus isolation because of its rapidity, compared with virus isolation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors associated with the spread of low pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza (AI) virus among commercial poultry farms in western Virginia during an outbreak in 2002.

Design—Case-control study.

Procedure—Questionnaires were used to collect information about farm characteristics, biosecurity measures, and husbandry practices on 151 infected premises (128 turkey and 23 chicken farms) and 199 noninfected premises (167 turkey and 32 chicken farms).

Results—The most significant risk factor for AI infection was disposal of dead birds by rendering (odds ratio [OR], 7.3). In addition, age ≥ 10 weeks (OR for birds aged 10 to 19 weeks, 4.9; OR for birds aged ≥ 20 weeks, 4.3) was a significant risk factor regardless of poultry species involved. Other significant risk factors included use of nonfamily caretakers and the presence of mammalian wildlife on the farm. Factors that were not significantly associated with infection included use of various routine biosecurity measures, food and litter sources, types of domestic animals on the premises, and presence of wild birds on the premises.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that an important factor contributing to rapid early spread of AI virus infection among commercial poultry farms during this outbreak was disposal of dead birds via rendering off-farm. Because of the highly infectious nature of AI virus and the devastating economic impact of outbreaks, poultry farmers should consider carcass disposal techniques that do not require offfarm movement, such as burial, composting, or incineration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:767–772)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-pathogenicity avian influenza. Low-pathogenicity Avian Influenza Despite the high degree of variation in both virus and host, the vast majority of IAV subtypes and variants are known as low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) and are generally associated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv) has spread into all continents via movement in both domestic poultry and transmission and movement through wild avian species. 1 Evolving lineages in the last few years have

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, and waders) are considered the primordial reservoir of all influenza viruses for avian and mammalian hosts. 24 , 44 All combinations, a total of 144 IAVs subtypes, can occur in birds. However, only a limited range of combinations are recognized as

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Thread length No. of threads Subject 20 1 Hemorrhagic disease—Kenya 21 1 Hendralike virus—Malaysia 22 2 Nipah virus—Malaysia; Ebola virus—Gabon: new outbreak 23 1 Avian influenza—Canada 24 1 Avian

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

c–e ; day 21, oral administration of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine; day 28, SC administration of avian influenza oil emulsion vaccine c–e ; day 35, oral administration of NDV (LaSota 4) and infectious bronchitis virus (H120) vaccines

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research