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systolic arterial pressure of 135 mm Hg, an average diastolic arterial pressure of 78 mm Hg, and an average mean arterial pressure of 90 mm Hg. No pulse deficits were noted, and the arrhythmia did not appear to be affecting perfusion as evidenced by the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A continuous recording of the ECG obtained with a Holter monitor over a 24-hour period is well established for the detection and quantification of intermittent arrhythmias and monitoring the response to antiarrhythmic medications in dogs. 1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.4%]). 2 Although most dogs died of unknown causes, underlying cardiomyopathy resulting in sudden cardiac death was considered possible. In 1997, researchers 3 evaluated 50 Salukis and suggested that ventricular arrhythmias were present in 10 (20%) of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-parasympathetic balance resulting in a decrease in HRV and increase in susceptibility to arrhythmias. Frequent occurrence of supraventricular and ventricular premature beats has been identified in trotting horses during the immediate postrace recovery phase and is most

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Perioperative ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are frequently seen in dogs undergoing splenectomy, and are reported in 28% to 44% of cases. 1 – 3 In dogs with nontraumatic hemoperitoneum due to a splenic mass, 29% (8/28) with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Sudden death has been previously reported to be associated with ventricular arrhythmias in young German Shepherd Dogs and English Springer Spaniels. 1,2 In people, sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of deaths not attributed to external

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

During a 3½-year period, cardiac arrhythmias were identified in 6 of 67 horses diagnosed with duodenitis/proximal jejunitis (dpj). Arrhythmias were detected by auscultation of irregular cardiac rhythm and subsequently were characterized by electrocardiographic evaluation. Arrhythmias included frequent second-degree atrioventricular block, ventricular ectopic depolarizations, and atrioventricular conduction disturbance. In 4 horses, arrhythmias resolved with recovery from the primary problem. One horse died suddenly 66 hours after admission, and another was euthanatized at 72 hours after admission.

Clinical and laboratory data from horses with dpj and cardiac arrhythmias (group l) were compared with findings for horses with dpj and without arrhythmias (group 2). Group-1 horses had significantly (P <0.05) higher serum bicarbonate concentration and serum creatine kinase activity.

Normal sinus rhythm returned in all 4 group-1 horses that recovered from dpj, suggesting a causal relationship between dpj and the arrhythmias. Two group-1 horses were necropsied, and both had myocarditis. The cause of these lesions was not determined.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Ventricular premature depolarizations (vpd) were identified in 21 horses in which unexplained tachycardia or an arrhythmia was detected on auscultation. Horses were categorized into 3 groups on the basis of ecg findings. Seven horses had uniform isolated vpd (group 1); 7 horses had repetitive uniform vpd at a rate <100 vpd/min (group 2); and 7 horses had either multiform vpd, R-on-T, or ≥ 100 vpd/min (group 3). Concurrent systemic disease was identified in 12 horses, 7 of which had gastrointestinal tract disorders. Serum cardiac isoenzyme activities were high in 6 (2 from each group) of 13 horses in which they were measured. Serum electrolyte concentrations were normal in all but 1 of 11 horses in which they were measured.

Antiarrhythmic drugs were given to 9 horses (all of which were in group 2 or group 3), 6 of which converted to sinus rhythm. Two horses that had R-on-T in the ECG died shortly after initiation of antiarrhythmic treatment. An accelerated idioventricular rhythm persisted in 1 horse for at least 8 months and failed to respond to antiarrhythmic drugs. Ventricular premature depolarizations resolved or decreased considerably in frequency in 11 horses without the administration of antiarrhythmic agents. Treatment in these horses included therapy for any underlying systemic disease, corticosteroids, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or stall rest. The remaining horse was euthanatized several hours after hospitalization.

Five horses died or were euthanatized either during hospitalization or several months after being discharged. Myocardial lesions were identified at necropsy in 2 horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate spontaneous variability in the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias and assess the influence of day of ECG recording and day of week on arrhythmia frequency in Boxers affected with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—10 Boxers with ARVC with prior ambulatory ECG recordings that included ≥ 500 ventricular premature complexes/24 h.

Procedure—Consecutive 24-hour ambulatory ECG recordings were obtained during a 7-day period in each dog. The number of ventricular premature complexes and grade of the arrhythmia were obtained from each recording. For each dog, the number of ventricular premature complexes for each recording was evaluated to identify any differences relative to the day of recording (recording 1 to 7) and day of the week (Monday through Sunday).

Results—Spontaneous variability accounted for as much as 80% of the change in frequency of ventricular premature complexes in dogs with frequent arrhythmias; this value was almost 100% in dogs with less frequent arrhythmias. Grade of arrhythmia was less variable but was also inversely related to frequency of arrhythmia. No significant differences in frequency values were identified among days of recording or among days of the week.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Changes of ≤ 80% in the frequency of ventricular arrhythmias may be within the limit of spontaneous variability in dogs with ARVC. This degree of variability should be considered in evaluations of ambulatory ECG recordings, particularly in the assessment of the efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224: 538–541)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of 4 antiarrhythmic treatment protocols on number of ventricular premature complexes (VPC), severity of arrhythmia, heart rate (HR), and number of syncopal episodes in Boxers with ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—49 Boxers.

Procedure—Dogs with > 500 VPC/24 h via 24-hour ambulatory ECG (AECG) were treated with atenolol (n = 11), procainamide (11), sotalol (16), or mexiletine and atenolol (11) for 21 to 28 days. Results of pre- and posttreatment AECG were compared with regard to number of VPC/24 h; maximum, mean, and minimum HR; severity of arrhythmia; and occurrence of syncope.

Results—Significant differences between pre- and posttreatment number of VPC, severity of arrhythmia, HR variables, or occurrence of syncope were not observed in dogs treated with atenolol or procainamide. Significant reductions in number of VPC, severity of arrythmia, and maximum and mean HR were observed in dogs treated with mexiletineatenolol or sotalol; occurrence of syncope was not significantly different between these 2 treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment with sotalol or mexiletine-atenolol was well tolerated and efficacious. Treatment with procainamide or atenolol was not effective. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:522–527)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association