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lidocaine infusion was started (3 mg/kg/h, IV) and a normal sinus rhythm predominated throughout the rest of the anesthetic procedure; however, several brief episodes of bigeminy and isolated monomorphic ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) were noted

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

right ventricle (and sometimes interventricular septum and left ventricle), ventricular tachyarrhythmias, syncope or exercise intolerance, and a possible history of familial disease. 1,3 Ventricular tachycardia and VPCs are hallmark features of ARVC

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

VPC and individual plasma fatty acid concentrations exist in either or both of these breeds. Materials and Methods Boxers and Doberman Pinschers evaluated at The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine between January 2003 and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,000 VPCs/24 h on a 24-hour AECG and left ventricle echocardiographic variables typical of those defined for clinically normal dogs of this size. 19 The second group (control Boxers) consisted of 10 Boxers with ≤ 5 VPCs/24 h and left ventricular

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

) were dogs selected from an ongoing study of ARVC in Boxers in which annual echocardiography and 24-hour AECG were performed. The first group consisted of Boxers with a clinical diagnosis of ARVC (n = 10) defined by the presence of ≥ 1,000 VPCs/24 h on a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

evaluated for presence of abnormal pauses, bradyarrhythmias, or tachyarrhythmias that could be associated with a fatal cardiac event. The number of VPCs/24 hours and their complexity (eg, single, monomorphic VPCs [singlets]; bigeminy; trigeminy; couplets

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

disease are detectable in the dog; a diagnostic test is not currently available to identify dogs in this stage of DCM. Usually the first detectable stage of the disease in Doberman Pinschers is that in which affected dogs develop VPCs, which are a common

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine results of ambulatory electrocardiography in and outcome of overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers with equivocal echocardiographic evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy.

Design—Case series.

Animals—44 overtly healthy (25 male, 19 female) Doberman Pinschers.

Procedure—24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (Holter) recordings with > 90% scan quality obtained the same day that echocardiography was performed were reviewed.

Results—Holter recordings from 42 of 44 (95%) dogs contained ventricular premature complexes (VPC). Fifteen of 44 (34%) dogs had > 100 VPC, 9 (20%) had > 500 VPC, and 5 (11%) had > 1,000 VPC. Nonsustained (< 30 seconds) ventricular tachycardia was detected in 4 dogs. Eighteen of 27 (67%) dogs with > 100 VPC, any couplets or triplets of VPC, or ventricular tachycardia developed dilated cardiomyopathy within 1 year, compared with 8 of 17 (47%) dogs with < 100 VPC, no couplets or triplets of VPC, and no ventricular tachycardia. Of the 18 dogs that did not develop dilated cardiomyopathy within 1 year, 11 (61%) did so within 3 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a high percentage of Doberman Pinschers with equivocal echocardiographic evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy will be found to have VPC during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography and that most will develop echocardiographic abnormalities indicative of cardiomyopathy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:782–784)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography (AECG) for the detection of ventricular premature complexes (VPC) in healthy dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—50 healthy mature dogs.

Procedure—A 24-hour AECG was performed on each dog and evaluated for the presence of VPC.

Results—Fifty dogs weighing between 18.2 to 40.9 kg (40 and 90 lb) representing 13 breeds were evaluated; there were 4 sexually intact females, 21 spayed females, 4 sexually intact males, and 21 castrated males. Ages ranged from 1 to 12 years. Thirty-four dogs had no VPC; 16 dogs had between 1 and 24 VPC. The grade of arrhythmia ranged from 1 to 4, with 4 dogs having an arrhythmia with a grade > 1. Significant differences were not detected between the group of dogs with VPC and those without VPC with regard to sex, age, and minimum, maximum, or mean heart rate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—We conclude that healthy mature dogs have infrequent VPC, as detected by use of 24-hour AECG. The presence of numerous or sequential VPC may be suggestive of cardiac or systemic disease and may indicate the need for thorough clinical evaluation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1291–1292)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify, by means of 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, electrocardiographic abnormalities in overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers in which results of echocardiography were abnormal.

Design—Clinical case series.

Animals—56 (35 male, 21 female) overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers with echocardiographic evidence of cardiomyopathy on initial examination that subsequently died of cardiomyopathy.

Procedure—Twenty-four-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (Holter) recordings obtained at the time of initial examination were reviewed. For all dogs, scan quality was > 90%.

Results—Initial Holter recordings of all 56 dogs contained ventricular premature contractions (VPC). Thirty-six (65%) dogs had > 1,000 VPC/24 h, 17 (31%) had > 5,000 VPC/24 h, and 11 (19%) had > 10,000 VPC/24 h. Fifty-four (96%) dogs had couplets of VPC, 37 (66%) had triplets of VPC, and 36 (64%) had episodes of nonsustained (< 30 seconds) ventricular tachycardia. Number of VPC/24 h during the initial Holter recordings was positively correlated with numbers of couplets and triplets of VPC and number of ventricular escape beats and negatively correlated with left ventricular fractional shortening. Twentyeight dogs died suddenly prior to the putative onset of congestive heart failure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that along with echocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography can be used to help identify overtly healthy Doberman Pinschers with cardiomyopathy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 1328–1332)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association