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Horner syndrome, pain when opening the mouth, and occasional sneezing and retching. General physical examination was normal besides a respiratory rate of 30 breaths per minute. Assessment Anatomic diagnosis The neurologic localization in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

simultaneously as a single-stage procedure. The most common complications following VBO in cats include persistent otic infection, Horner syndrome, vestibular signs, facial nerve paralysis, and local recurrence of the inflammatory polyp or tumor. 1–9 Although

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and otitis in cats. 1,3,5,6,12–17 Clinical signs include those consistent with obstructive upper respiratory tract disease; nasal, ocular, or otic discharge; change in voice; swallowing difficulties; head tilt; Horner syndrome; nystagmus; ataxia

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

peripheral vestibular disease without motor deficits, Horner syndrome, or facial nerve paralysis. For purposes of the present study, unilateral peripheral vestibular disease was considered to be a sign of middle ear disease because even though this condition

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

left guttural pouch was more extensive than on the previous examination but had not invaded the structures or vasculature of the lateral compartment ( Figure 3 ). The mare had left-sided Horner syndrome and atrophy of the right side of the tongue

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hospitalization. The surgeon performed a complete physical examination on all cats before discharge from the hospital and 15 days after surgery. Any new clinical signs were considered as complications. Horner syndrome and peripheral vestibular syndrome that were

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction A 9-year-old spayed female Maine Coon cat was presented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna with the history of nonpruritic bilateral ear disease and unilateral Horner syndrome. Additionally, the patient had recurrent

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate safety and efficacy of vagal nerve stimulation in dogs with refractory epilepsy.

Design—Placebo-controlled, double-masked, crossover study.

Animals—10 dogs with poorly controlled seizures.

Procedure—A programmable pacemaker-like device designed to deliver intermittent stimulation to the left cervical trunk of the vagus was surgically implanted in each dog. Dogs were assigned randomly to two 13- week test periods, 1 with nerve stimulation and 1 without nerve stimulation. Owners recorded data on seizure frequency, duration, and intensity, as well as adverse effects.

Results—No significant difference in seizure frequency, duration, or severity was detected between overall 13-week treatment and control periods. During the final 4 weeks of the treatment period, a significant decrease in mean seizure frequency (34.4%) was detected, compared with the control period. Complications included transient bradycardia, asystole, and apnea during intraoperative device testing, and seroma formation, subcutaneous migration of the generator, and transient Horner's syndrome during the 14-day period between surgery and suture removal. No adverse effects of stimulation were detected, and most owners were satisfied with the treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vagal nerve stimulation is a potentially safe approach to seizure control that appears to be efficacious in certain dogs and should be considered a possible treatment option when antiepileptic medications are ineffective. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:977–983)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the treatment of hyperthyroidism caused by bilateral hyperplastic thyroid nodules in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—7 cats.

Procedure—Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs and increased serum total thyroxine (TT4) concentrations. The presence of 2 cervical thyroid nodules was confirmed by use of ultrasonography and technetium Tc 99m albumin thyroid scans. After the death of 1 cat that received PEI in both thyroid nodules at the same time, the protocol was changed to injecting ethanol into 1 nodule at a time, with at least 1 month between injections. Clinical signs, serum TT4 concentrations, serum ionized calcium concentrations, laryngeal function, findings on ultrasonographic examinations of the ventral cervical region, and results of thyroid scans were monitored.

Results—Serum TT4 concentrations transiently decreased in all 6 cats (into the reference range in 5 of 6 cats) within 4 days of the first staged ethanol injection. Each subsequent injection resulted in a transient decrease in serum TT4 concentration. The longest period of euthyroidism was 27 weeks. Adverse effects included Horner's syndrome, dysphonia, and laryngeal paralysis. One cat died of unrelated causes. One cat underwent bilateral thyroidectomy, 2 cats were treated with methimazole, and 2 cats that had increased serum TT4 concentrations were not treated further, because they remained clinically normal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Percutaneous ethanol ablation of bilateral thyroid nodules as a treatment for cats with hyperthyroidism is not recommended. This treatment is not as efficacious as the medical and surgical treatments presently used. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1293–1297)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine efficacy and safety of percutaneous radiofrequency heat ablation for treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—9 cats.

Procedure—Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed via clinical signs and high serum total (TT4) and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations. One or 2 hyperfunctional cervical thyroid nodules were detected by use of scintigraphy and ultrasonography. If cats had 1 abnormal thyroid lobe, heat ablation was performed on that lobe; if cats had 2 abnormal lobes, heat ablation was applied to the larger lobe. Overall, heat ablation was performed 14 times in the 9 cats. Clinical signs and serum TT4, fT4, and calcium concentrations were monitored daily for 2 days after the procedure, weekly for the first month, and then monthly. Laryngeal function was evaluated and cervical ultrasonography and thyroid scintigraphy were also performed. Monitoring continued for as long as 9 months after heat ablation if a cat became euthyroid or until an owner chose an alternative treatment because of recurrence of hyperthyroidism.

Results—Serum TT4 and fT4 concentrations transiently decreased after all 14 heat ablation procedures (≤ reference range after 10 of 14 treatments) within 2 days after the procedure. Cats were euthyroid for 0 to 18 months (mean, 4 months). Hyperthyroidism recurred in all cats. Adverse effects included transient Horner's syndrome (2 cats) and laryngeal paralysis without clinical signs (1 cat).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Percutaneous heat ablation as a treatment for hyperthyroidism in cats is effective transiently but not permanently. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1602–1607)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association