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Introduction Pathogens spread from animals to humans lead to zoonotic diseases or zoonoses. 1 These pathogens include bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi and can be transmitted through direct and indirect contacts with animals, food

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Zoonotic diseases are a serious and growing public health concern throughout the world, 1 with most recent emerging and reemerging human infectious diseases involving zoonotic pathogens. 2 Pet animals, particularly exotic pet animals, are an

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Emerging zoonotic diseases are a growing concern in the public health community. Of 175 species of pathogens classified as emerging, 132 (75%) are zoonotic. 1 Diseases associated with these pathogens include severe acute respiratory syndrome and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors , , and
Animals in Public Contact subcommittee of the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians Animals in Public Contact subcommittee of the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians

Abstract

Objective—To assess the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks associated with animal exhibits and identify published recommendations for preventing zoonotic disease transmission from animals to people in exhibit settings.

Design—Literature review and survey of state public health veterinarians and state epidemiologists.

Procedure—MEDLINE and agriculture databases were searched from 1966 through 2000. Retrieved references and additional resources provided by the authors were reviewed. A survey was sent to state public health veterinarians and state epidemiologists to determine whether their states had written recommendations or guidelines for controlling zoonotic diseases in animal exhibition venues, whether their states maintained a listing of animal exhibitors in the state, and whether they had any information on recent outbreaks involving animals in exhibitions.

Results—11 published outbreaks were identified. These outbreaks occurred in a variety of settings including petting zoos, farms, and a zoological park. An additional episode involving exposure to a potentially rabid bear required extensive public health resources. A survey of state public health veterinarians identified 16 additional unpublished outbreaks or incidents. Most states did not have written recommendations or guidelines for controlling zoonotic diseases or any means to disseminate educational materials to animal exhibitors.

Conclusions—Recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases associated with contact with animals in exhibition venues highlight concerns for disease transmission to public visitors. Only a handful of states have written guidelines for preventing zoonotic disease transmission in animal exhibition venues, and published recommendations currently available focus on preventing enteric diseases and largely do not address other zoonotic diseases or prevention of bite wounds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1105–1109)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In the report “Compendium of Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention in Veterinary Personnel” ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:1252–1277), several paragraphs at the end of Appendix 4 (Model infection control plan for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

infection, psittacosis, and dermatophytosis. Infection control measures vary from practice to practice and are often insufficient to prevent zoonotic disease transmission. The Veterinary Standard Precautions outlined in this Compendium are designed to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

have an increased risk of exposure to zoonotic disease, especially during infectious disease outbreaks. 7 – 9 In the case of SARS-CoV-2, concern for transmission was exceptionally high given that both humans and animals are susceptible and may shed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

workforce, but a shift occurred in 2013, when veterinary medical occupational safety and health was included as a component of the NORA. Preventing transmission of zoonotic diseases from animals to veterinary personnel represents 1 component of a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association