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action and improved postoperative analgesia. 6 Furthermore, brachial plexus blockade in humans with bupivacaine was superior when clonidine was added compared to epinephrine. 7 The addition of xylazine to lidocaine in caudal epidurals has been shown to

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Xylazine, an α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist, has been shown to produce an analgesic effect in ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats for surgical procedures. 1–3 However, xylazine can cause depressed cardiorespiratory functions, decreased

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

provision of assisted ventilation. However, recovery from anesthesia still entails risk for both horses and personnel. Traditionally, induction of anesthesia in horses has been performed by use of drugs administered IV, such as xylazine, guaifenesin or

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The α 2 -adrenoceptor agonists medetomidine and xylazine are used in veterinary medicine to induce reliable and dose-dependent sedation, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. 1 Although both drugs are used similarly in practice, there are differences

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

α 2 -Adrenoceptor agonists including xylazine, detomidine, romifidine, and medetomidine are used to induce sedation, analgesia, anxiolysis, and muscle relaxation in a variety of species. Xylazine, the least selective of the α 2 -adrenoceptor

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cats, cats have been reported to ingest various toxicants and foreign material, which may necessitate the induction of emesis. 1–5 Administration of xylazine hydrochloride has been recommended for the induction of emesis in cats. 6,7 Xylazine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

xylazine and ketamine, is more convenient to use than GKX infusion and produces comparable short-term anesthesia. 15 Climazolam, in combination with ketamine, has been used to maintain anesthesia in ponies premedicated with acepromazine and xylazine. 16

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

agonists such as xylazine have dose-dependent, strong sedative, moderate analgesic, and myorelaxing effects in cattle. Adverse effects of α 2 -adrenoceptor agonists include cardiorespiratory depression such as bradycardia, bradypnea, hypotension, hypoxemia

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

of general anesthesia and recumbency. It can be challenging to achieve appropriate sedation and restraint for procedures performed in standing horses. Typically, an α 2 -receptor agonist (such as xylazine), which is frequently combined with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

selected vessel location in spectral mode and may cause flash or color artifacts in color-flow mode. The flash artifacts may obscure a necessary portion or all of the image. For this reason, a sedative is often needed. Sedation of cows with xylazine (0

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research