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When an animal is radiographed, x-rays scatter from the patient and table and travel toward restrainers. 8 Therefore, workers must wear leaded PPE for protection against scattered radiation even if they are some distance from the primary beam. However

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

with reasonable precision and accuracy include total body water measurement and DEXA. 1 Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry estimates body composition by use of photons of 2 energy levels (70 and 140 kVp), which are impeded differently by bone mineral

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction The NCRP provides specific recommendations 1 for the use of portable x-ray equipment during veterinary diagnostic radiographic procedures. The x-ray tube and the cassette should be supported by mechanical devices rather than

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

increasing the distance of the worker to the source of radiation, maximizing the distance between the worker and the source, and using appropriate shielding. 2 , 3 During the use of portable x-ray equipment, the NCRP recommends the use of mechanical devices

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technology is considered to be the technique of choice to evaluate bone mineral content and density in humans because it allows rapid, inexpensive, noninvasive, precise, and accurate measurement of bone density in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

addition, depending on the size of the hatchlings and the volume of blood needed, collection of an adequate blood sample could be lethal for small chelonians. 50 Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is considered the criterion-referenced standard for in vivo

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In recent years, DXA has been one of the standard methods used for in vivo determination of body composition. This technique is based on the differential attenuation of x-rays by bone, lean tissue, and fat tissue, which in turn allows the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

condition score CV Coefficient of variation DO Deuterium oxide DXA Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry FM Fat mass LBM Lean body mass QMR Quantitative magnetic resonance TBW Total body water a. EchoMRI-D QMR analyzer, Echo Medical Systems

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the accuracy and precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for measuring bone mineral density in horses in situ.

Sample Population—12 randomly selected forelimbs from 12 horses.

Procedure—Metacarpi were scanned in 2 planes and DEXA measurements obtained for 6 regions of interest (ROI). Each ROI was isolated and bone density measured by Archimedes' principle. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between the 2 measurements at each ROI. An additional metacarpus was measured 10 times to determine the coefficient of variation for both techniques.

Results—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bone density were significantly associated at multiple ROI. The addition of age, weight, and soft tissue or bone thickness improved these associations. Repeated measurements had a low coefficient of variation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry can be used to accurately and precisely measure the bone density in the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry appears suitable for serial in vivo measurement of bone density of the equine metacarpus. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used for studies to evaluate the effects of diet or drugs on bone density or density changes from bone remodeling that develop prior to stress fractures. ( Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:752–756)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine quantitative values for components of body composition in clinically normal dogs of various breeds by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and validate the precision and accuracy of DEXA technology in dogs.

Animals—103 clinically normal sexually intact adult dogs.

Procedure—In a cross-sectional study, Beagles, Pembroke Welsh Corgis, Golden Retrievers, Great Danes, Pointers, Rottweilers, and nonpurebred dogs received total body DEXA scans. For the validation portion of the study, the results of DEXA scans of 6 dogs were compared with values obtained by chemical analyses of tissues from euthanatized dogs to determine the accuracy of this modality in dogs.

Results—Results (coefficient of variation) of the precision tests ranged from 0.10% for lean tissue to 5.19% for fat tissue, whereas accuracy tests revealed a difference between percentage bone mineral content and ash values. Body composition differed by sex, such as higher lean tissue and bone mineral content in males within some breeds, and among breeds. Regardless of body size or weight, the percentage of body weight that was bone mineral ranged from 3 to 4.0%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this cross-sectional study provide valuable body composition data for clinically normal adult dogs, which may have research and clinical applications. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1295–1301)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research