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30 minutes were found optimal for detecting crossmatch incompatibilities in green ( Chelonia mydas ) and loggerhead sea turtles. 3 In vitro testing of allogeneic whole blood transfusions among green sea turtles found only 54% were compatible by major

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

whole blood transfusion. Although there are no established rejection criteria for acceptable PCV of transfused blood, below 22% to 23%, a larger volume of blood is needed to raise a recipient’s PCV adequately. 20 In this study, values that did drop

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess data regarding clinical features, clinicopathologic and blood gas variables, and outcome from horse and mule foals with confirmed neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—17 horse and 1 mule foals.

Procedure—Medical records of foals (< 14 days old) with NI were reviewed. Information collected included signalment; clinical examination findings; results of hematologic, serum and plasma biochemical, and venous blood gas analyses and urinalysis; treatments; and outcome.

Results—Data from 17 horse foals and 1 mule foal with NI (mean age, 71 hours) were evaluated. Many foals had high serum indirect and direct bilirubin concentrations and sorbitol dehydrogenase activity. Whole blood immunoglobulin concentrations were < 400 mg/dL in 4 of 15 foals. Fresh whole blood transfusions were administered to 10 of 18 foals. Among the blood factors implicated in 11 foals, one (Dg) had not previously been associated with NI. Of 10 foals that received blood transfusions, 7 had significant improvements in Hct and hemoglobin concentration and 2 had significant improvements in central venous oxygen tension. Fifteen foals survived to discharge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that blood factor Dg may be associated with NI in foals. Liver disease may be concurrent with NI in foals, and NI can develop in foals with inadequate passive transfer of colostral antibodies. Whole blood transfusions were successful at increasing oxygencarrying capacity and improving peripheral tissue oxygenation in NI-affected foals. With appropriate treatment, the prognosis for foals with NI is good. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1276–1283)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The sensitivity and specificity of 2 antibody tests for diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (itp) in dogs were investigated prospectively. An elisa to detect antibodies bound to the surface of platelets from affected dogs (direct test) was performed in 34 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of itp and in 21 dogs with thrombocytopenia attributable to other causes. An elisa to detect platelet-bindable antibodies in serum from affected dogs (indirect test) was performed in 32 dogs with itp and in 15 dogs with other causes of thrombocytopenia. The direct test was positive in 32 of 34 dogs with itp (sensitivity, 94%) and negative in 13 of 21 dogs with other causes of thrombocytopenia (specificity, 62%). Positive direct test results were obtained in 2 dogs with systemic lupus erythematosus, and in 1 dog each with concurrent Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis infections, dirofilariasis, myelodysplasia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (of unknown cause), and thrombocytopenia subsequent to administration of trimethoprim/sulfadiazine, as well as in 1 dog with thrombocytopenia 14 days after a whole blood transfusion. The indirect test had positive results in 11 of 32 dogs with itp (sensitivity, 34%) and negative results in 12 of 15 dogs with other causes of thrombocytopenia (specificity, 80%). Positive indirect test results were obtained in 1 dog each with systemic lupus erythematosus, concurrent E canis and B canis infections, and thrombocytopenia subsequent to administration of trimethoprim/sulfadiazine. Detection of platelet-bound antibodies was more sensitive than detection of serumplatelet bindable antibodies in confirming a diagnosis of itp in dogs. Neither test was specific for itp. Therefore, a negative test result for platelet-bound antibodies in dogs with thrombocytopenia is helpful in excluding itp as a cause of thrombocytopenia; however, a positive test result is not specific for itp, and other causes of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia must be excluded to establish a diagnosis of itp.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A geographically stratified sample of 25 small-animal practices administering at least six transfusions to dogs over the last 12 months was surveyed to determine how veterinarians obtain blood for transfusions, the direct costs of administering transfusions, and the impact of available blood on the management of critically ill dogs. The primary source of donor blood for each practice was a borrowed dog (12 practices) or in-house dogs kept on the premises (12 practices). Only one practice obtained blood from a nearby veterinary school.

There was a wide variation in practices regarding testing for diseases and screening of donors. Thirty-six percent of practices surveyed did not screen dogs for infectious diseases or evaluate hematologic variables prior to blood donation. Twenty-four percent of the respondents evaluated the donors solely for the purposes of detecting microfilaria. The remaining 40% of the practices performed one or more of the tests generally recommended as part of a screening program for potential blood donors. The blood type of donors was determined in eight of the practices, whereas blood typing of recipients was not routinely performed. Ten of 25 practices performed blood crossmatches, but only one practice performed crossmatches in all cases.

The distribution of direct costs per whole blood transfusion (500-ml unit) ranged from 25 to more than $300, with three fourths of the practices having costs less than $100. The higher-cost practices were those that maintained donors on the premises specifically for blood donation purposes. More than 80% of the respondents underestimated their collection costs by more than 25%, and approximately half of the practices did not recover their direct costs of transfusion. Because veterinarians viewed transfusions as a lifesaving measure in more than 80% of cases, fee recovery may have been less important than survival of the dog.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

appeared normal. Following the initial whole blood transfusion on day 2, Hct increased to 28%. Echocardiographic abnormalities included mild myocardial failure with a fractional shortening of 31% (reference range, > 34% 3 ) and a moderately volume

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ventricular enlargement. The dog underwent an exploratory laparotomy and concomitant whole blood transfusion; continuous ECG monitoring was performed during anesthesia ( Figure 1 ). Figure 1— Six-lead ECG tracings obtained from an anesthetized dog during

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

cells/L [reference range, 6.0 to 16.9 X 10 9 cells/L]). Treatment for shock, hypotension, and anemia was initiated by means of a whole blood transfusion and a 6% hetastarch solution. a A lateral survey radiograph of the abdomen was obtained ( Figure 1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

dogs receiving packed red blood cell transfusions Previous studies have suggested that packed RBC or whole blood transfusions are associated with a 3.3% to 13% incidence of transfusion reactions in dogs, but information is lacking on risk factors for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

receiving whole blood transfusions and 16 receiving fresh frozen plasma) and only 2 dogs that received functional platelets (as part of a fresh whole blood transfusions). In the human literature, plasma-containing products are much more likely to cause TRALI

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association