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they are maintained and spread to new hosts. Wastewater Municipal wastewater flows provide an important mode of reservoir escape for resistant bacterial strains that are amplified in human healthcare environments. These resistant bacteria

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Natural environments, especially surface waters, act as collection sites receiving continuous inputs from a variety of sources. Some, like treated wastewater originating from human healthcare facilities or agricultural waste runoff, can be laden with

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Milk samples were collected from all lactating cows on 60 dairies (mean number of cows/dairy, 584; range, 66 to 2,834) randomly selected from 701 California dairies enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association program. Samples were tested, by means of an elisa, for antibodies against Salmonella serogroup B, C1, and D1 antigens (somatic antigens 01, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12). Blood samples were collected from all cows with positive results and tested for serologic evidence of exposure to salmonellae. Samples for bacteriologic culture (pooled feces from 20 randomly selected calves, swabs of wet areas and feces from calf pens and dairy hospital pens, drag swab sample from wastewater lagoon, and samples of feed components) were also collected from all 60 dairies. Seven (11.7%) of the 60 dairies each had 1 sample that yielded Salmonella organisms (3 S typhimurium, 1 S dublin, 1 nonmotile Group D salmonella, 1 S derby, and 1 S oranienberg). Five of the Salmonella isolates came from the hospital pens and 2 came from calf pens. Thirty-three dairies did not vaccinate cattle against salmonellosis, and of these, 24 (72.7%) had ≥ 1 seropositive cow (titer ≥ 200), and 20 (61 %) had ≥1 persistently seropositive cow (titer for each of 2 blood samples collected ≥ 60 days apart was ≥ 200). Of the 27 dairies that did vaccinate cows against salmonellosis, 24 (89%) had ≥ 1 seropositive cow, and 21 (78%) had ≥ 1 persistently seropositive cow.

We concluded that studies that use of bacteriologic culture of fecal and environmental samples to determine the percentage of dairies with Salmonella-infected cows may underestimate the true percentage.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors and

waste, likely representative of resistances most relevant to production animal medicine, is 1,000 to 100,000 times higher than that found even from human-source effluents. 6 Though not universally practiced, wastewater treatment can be used to

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

director and one-third of the program directors are members of our faculty. Our researchers established Environmental Surveillance for COVID-19 in Ohio: Understanding Transmission (eSCOUT) to study wastewater and storm water to identify circulating viral

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

these unintended additive, synergistic effects.” The pharmaceuticals in that mix—and products of their deterioration—arrive in water discharged from wastewater treatment plants, passed through tile drains from manure-fertilized fields, washed off

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

limit. The samples with the highest concentrations of each chemical came from just downstream of wastewater treatment facilities, and the authors said that finding supports their contention that the chemicals originate from veterinary-use flea control

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, several municipal and national programs have been initiated using wastewater-based epidemiology to assess and mitigate viral outbreaks involving human viruses shed in feces and urine (eg, SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants). 72 Although these programs

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-toothed triggerfish is 36 to 48 mg/kg and 50 to 75 mg/kg for black triggerfish. 30 Brodifacoum also exhibits high bioaccumulation potential in fish and has been detected in fish from wastewater treatment plants. 29 In sheep administered a single oral dose (either 0

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

impact because landfill leachate can ultimately reach wastewater treatment plants and pass through the filtration system into the environment. 23 The results of the present study indicated that flushing PPCPs down the sink or toilet occurred in between 5

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association