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critical need for training veterinary microbiology specialists and microbiologists working in the laboratory. Due to retirements, changing laboratory test needs, and the small number of training programs, VDLs are experiencing a shortage of trained

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: 10.3390/antibiotics10040409 8. Timofte D , Broens EM , Guardabassi L , European Network for Optimization of Veterinary Antimicrobial Treatment (ENOVAT); ESCMID Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM); European College of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against 40- and 56- to 64-kd antigens of Chlamydia pecorum strain Maeda, which was isolated from a cow with pneumonia. Using the monoclonal antibodies, 5 strains of C pecorum, 25 strains of mammalian and 19 strains of avian C psittaci, 1 strain of C pneumoniae, and 3 strains of C trachomatis were analyzed for immunologic reactivity by use of the indirect immunofluorescent test. Monoclonal antibody analysis revealed immunologic relatedness between C pecorum and mammalian strains of C psittaci, which were completely differentiated from the other avian strains. Bovine strains were distinguished from ovine strains. Antigenic diversity was observed for bovine and ovine strains. Feline- and guinea pig-derived strains were shown to be immunologically different from bovine and ovine strains. Results provide the basis for typing and epidemiologic study of bovine and ovine strains of C pecorum and C psittaci.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Efficacy of ivermectin at a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight was evaluated against naturally acquired ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation in commercially raised ranch foxes (Vulpes fulva). Efficacy of ivermectin given sc twice at 3-week intervals was 97.4%. Toxicosis associated with drug treatment was not observed. Increased dosage of 1.0 mg/kg was given sc to 5 foxes each week for 6 consecutive weeks, and signs of toxicosis or illness were not observed after treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The prophylactic/therapeutic activity of natural bovine fibroblast interferon (BoF-ifn) against bovine rhinovirus infection in calves was assessed. Six calves were each given 8 intranasal inoculations of partially purified BoF-ifn (3.25 × 105 U at 8 am, 11 am, 5 pm, and 8 pm on day 1 and 8 am, 11 am, 2 pm, and 5pm on day 2), and 6 calves were given placebo. All calves were challenge exposed with 105.1 TCID 50) of bovine rhinovirus after the first 2 treatments (6 hours after the first ifn or placebo treatment). Nasal excretion of rhinovirus, ifn concentration in the nasal secretions, and nasal secretion and serum rhinovirus antibodies were measured before and at selected times after calves were inoculated. Interferon-treated calves excreted rhinovirus in their nasal secretions in lesser amounts (mean value, 0.84 log10 TCID 50/ml vs 1.58 log10 TCID 50/ml on postchallenge exposure days 1 and 2; (P < 0.05) and for a shorter duration (P < 0.05) than did placebo-treated calves. No calves developed clinical signs of respiratory tract illness. Rhinovirus antibody titer was not significantly different between ifn- and placebo-treated calves.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate disease in kittens inoculated with Bartonella henselae strain LSU16.

Animals—Eighteen 12-week-old specific-pathogenfree kittens.

Procedure—Kittens were inoculated with B henselae strain LSU16 or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Blood samples were collected from kittens on alternate weeks, and bacteremia, clinical signs, and antibody concentrations were monitored for 6 months after inoculation.

Results—Kittens developed raised, erythematous areas at the site of inoculation within 72 hours. Swelling peaked at 14 days and resolved by 28 days after inoculation. Fever had a biphasic pattern, with an episode of 1- to 3-days' duration beginning 6 to 7 days after inoculation followed by an episode of 3- to 8- days' duration beginning 11 to 13 days after inoculation. Kittens were bacteremic by day 14 with peak bacteremia at days 14 to 28. Strong antibody responses to B henselae were detected. Clinical disease resolved before bacteremia became undetectable, but signs of disease correlated with the highest degree of bacteremia. Regional lymphadenopathy also was evident.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Clinical disease in kittens was similar to that in adult cats infected with B henselae strain LSU16, except that lethargy and anorexia were less severe in kittens, and a biphasic pattern of fever was detected in kittens. Clinical disease after inoculation with B henselae may be strain-dependent. To limit transmission of Bartonella organisms, appropriate flea prevention should be instituted.

Impact for Human Medicine—Kittens that are febrile, anorectic, lethargic, and that have lymphadenopathy should be tested for Bartonella organisms, and contact with immunocompromised owners should be discouraged. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:375–379)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Eight strains of Chlamydia psittaci isolated from swine with pneumonia, pleuritis, pericarditis, and enteritis were characterized through analysis of the major outer membrane protein gene ompA by a two-step polymerase chain reaction, by their interactions with cells in culture, and the morphologic features and ultrastructure of intra-cellular inclusions. Amplified chlamydial ompA dna fragments were differentiated by restriction endonuclease digestion. Chlamydial isolates were separated into 2 types on the basis of ompA restriction fragment length polymorphism. Strains of type L71 had finely granular inclusions, whereas those of type 1710S contained pleomorphic reticulate bodies (rb) in the inclusions, which are characteristic of aberrant chlamydial developmental forms. Chlamydial types L71 and 1710S required centrifuge-assisted inoculation for efficient infection of cell cultures. Cultivation in cell culture medium containing cycloheximide increased the numbers of chlamydial inclusions about 1.5-fold. These strains formed few elementary bodies in yolk sac cells of chicken embryos. Ultrastructurally, unique doublet rb were observed, particularly in strains of the ompA type L71. These doublets consisted of 2 rb, bounded by a cytoplasmic membrane, contained within a common cell wall and an extended periplasmic space. Ultrastructural examination of strains of the ompA type 1710S confirmed the aberrant chlamydial developmental forms, but evidence of viral infection of the rb as a cause of these aberrant forms was not found. The strain S45 isolated from intestinal sites of swine was a trachoma restriction fragment length polymorphism type. With the mouse biotype, it represented the second isolate from animals of Chlamydia trachomatis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research