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fever along the United States-Mexico border, 2013-2016 . Emerg Infect Dis . 2017 ; 23 ( 10 ): 1621 - 1626 . doi: 10.3201/eid2310.170309 24. Vector-Borne Disease Section . California Department of Public Health . Updated October 23, 2023. Accessed

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

J Environ Res Public Health . 2013 ; 10 ( 7 ): 3052 - 3071 . doi: 10.3390/ijerph10073052 17. Ogden NH . Climate change and vector-borne diseases of public health significance . FEMS Microbiol Lett . 2017 ; 364 ( 19 ): fnx186 . doi: 10

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the geographic distribution of deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis) was associated with the distribution of dogs seropositive for various tick-transmitted disease organisms (ie, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia rickettsii, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [HGE] agent, Ehrlichia canis, and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii).

Design—Serologic survey.

Sample Population—Serum samples from 277 dogs in animal shelters and veterinary hospitals in Rhode Island.

Results—Overall, 143 (52%) dogs were seropositive for B burgdorferi, 59 (21.3%) were seropositive for R rickettsii, 40 (14.4%) were seropositive for the HGE agent, 8 (2.9%) were seropositive for E canis, and 6 (2.2%) were seropositive for B vinsonii. Regression analysis indicated that the natural logarithm of nymphal deer tick abundance was correlated with rate of seropositivity to the HGE agent and to B burgdorferi but not to rate of seropositivity to R rickettsii, E canis, or B vinsonii. Percentages of samples seropositive for B burgdorferi, R rickettsii, the HGE agent, and E canis were significantly higher for samples from the southwestern part of the state where ticks in general and deer ticks in particular are abundant than for samples from the northern and eastern portions of the state, where ticks are relatively rare.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that all 5 disease agents are in Rhode Island and pose a risk to dogs and humans. Knowledge concerning tick distributions may be useful in predicting the pattern of disease associated with particular tick species and may aid diagnostic, prevention, and control efforts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1092–1097)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the epizootiological investigation of an outbreak of Q fever (Coxiella burnetii infection).

Design—Epidemiological study.

Animals—17 goat herds in Washington, Montana, and Oregon.

Procedures—In April 2011, an abortion storm at a commercial goat farm in Washington was determined to be caused by C burnetii. A joint epidemiological investigation by public health and veterinary professionals was subsequently performed to assess the extent of the outbreak by performing a trace-forward of goats sold from the index farm, to determine risk factors associated with infection, and to implement control measures. A herd management plan was developed to control the outbreak and reduce risk of human exposure. Quarantine and temporary holds preventing the sale or movement of goats allowed time for trace-forward investigation, education of farmers regarding disease risk, and testing to determine the scope of the outbreak.

Results—17 farms were affected; 21 human Q fever cases were identified. Bacterial shedding in feces, vaginal fluid, or milk was confirmed in 156 of 629 (25%) goats tested by PCR assay. Seroprevalence of antibodies against C burnetii in goats, determined by ELISA, was 12%. The risk for C burnetii infection in goats was highest among females, those on farms associated with human Q fever, and those on Washington farms. A protective effect was observed for goats at farms where the primary form of goat carcass disposal was burial.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This outbreak illustrated the importance of a joint investigation for zoonotic pathogens and the need to expand and strengthen relationships between medical, public health, and veterinary partners. Heightened awareness and enhanced veterinary diagnostic capabilities for C burnetii are needed to identify and control outbreaks expediently.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Dogs become infected with Borrelia burgdorferi after being bitten by infected adult ticks. However, it is not known whether dogs are competent reservoirs of the organism, that is, it is not known whether infected dogs can subsequently transmit the bacterium to feeding immature ticks. To determine reservoir competence of dogs, 11 Beagles were experimentally infected by means of challenge exposure to infected adult deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis). Three weeks later, larval ticks were allowed to feed on the dogs. Engorged larvae were collected, allowed to molt to the nymph stage, and tested, by means of a direct fluorescent antibody assay, to detect the presence of B burgdorferi organisms. Overall, 78% of immature ticks tested were found to have become infected. We concluded that dogs might serve to increase human risk of exposure to B burgdorferi-infected ticks and, therefore, should be protected from exposure to infected ticks as well as immature ticks seeking a blood meal.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In August 1986, an extensive serosurvey for prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies against Ehrlichia risticii, the causative agent of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (eme), was performed at 2 Ohio racetracks, River Downs (rd) and Beulah Park (bp). Of 840 horses at rd and 574 at bp, 13 and 20%, respectively, were IgG antibody-positive (by indirect fluorescent antibody test results), with antibody titer ranging from 1:20 to 1:10,240. The titer observed at highest frequency at both racetracks was 1:80. A higher proportion of horses was ill at rd (operating during the summer months) than at bp (winter track). Of ill horses, 41% (24/58) at rd and 58% (11/19) at bp were seropositive. At rd, 70% (589/840) of all horses and 95% (102/107) of IgG seropositive horses had been stabled only at rd during the month prior to testing.

Analysis of these sera by use of an elisa to detect IgM antibody against E risticii antigen indicated that at rd, 42% (57/137) of the seropositive horses were IgM seropositive. At bp, 17% (20/120) of seropositive horses were IgM seropositive. The larger number of IgM seropositive horses at rd indicates that more horses were recently infected at rd than at bp (P = 0.0001). Therefore, at least half the seropositive horses at rd seemed to have acquired the infection at rd. These serosurvey data also indicate that at bp and rd, 78% (85/109) and 91% (111/122) of IgG seropositive horses, respectively, had subclinical infection. At ≤ 1:40 titer, there was no difference in seropositive rates between healthy and ill horses. However, the higher the titer, the greater the difference in seropositive rates between healthy and ill horses. Thus, the higher the titer, the more reliable the serodiagnosis of eme seems to be. In contrast, sera submitted from 285 horses in Ohio for serologic testing for E risticii had a higher (63%) positivity rate than sera from horses of the racetrack serosurvey. Of 120 horses with clinical signs compatible with eme, 69% were seropositive. Typical clinical signs of eme in seropositive horses were those of enteric disease (72%; 60/83), with laminitis being a secondary sign (12%; 10/83). Results indicate that seroprevalence is much greater than prevalence of clinical disease. Combination of IgG and IgM testing with horse movement history should help to identify the location of actual infection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

diseases entering the US (eg, West Nile Virus in birds in 1999 6 ), so it is important to monitor the occurrence of emerging vector-borne diseases in animals. Increases in the incidence or prevalence of leishmaniasis in animals could precede an increase in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine associations among infectious pathogens and diarrheal disease in dogs in an animal shelter and demonstrate the use of geographic information systems (GISs) for tracking spatial distributions of diarrheal disease within shelters.

Sample Population—Feces from 120 dogs.

Procedure—Fresh fecal specimens were screened for bacteria and bacterial toxins via bacteriologic culture and ELISA, parvovirus via ELISA, canine coronavirus via nested polymerase chain reaction assay, protozoal cysts and oocysts via a direct fluorescent antibody technique, and parasite ova and larvae via microscopic examination of direct wet mounts and zinc sulfate centrifugation flotation.

ResultsSalmonella enterica and Brachyspira spp were not common, whereas other pathogens such as canine coronavirus and Helicobacter spp were common among the dogs that were surveyed. Only intestinal parasites and Campylobacter jejuni infection were significant risk factors for diarrhea by univariate odds ratio analysis. Giardia lamblia was significantly underestimated by fecal flotation, compared with a direct fluorescent antibody technique. Spatial analysis of case specimens by use of GIS indicated that diarrhea was widespread throughout the entire shelter, and spatial statistical analysis revealed no evidence of spatial clustering of case specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided an epidemiologic overview of diarrhea and interacting diarrhea-associated pathogens in a densely housed, highly predisposed shelter population of dogs. Several of the approaches used in this study, such as use of a spatial representation of case specimens and considering multiple etiologies simultaneously, were novel and illustrate an integrated approach to epidemiologic investigations in shelter populations. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1018–1024)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research