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( 1 ): 83 – 99 . doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/37/1/83 34. Ruste M , Cazenave L , Tardif M , Saint-Jean C , Fellahi JL , Lagrèze MJ . Measurement of capillary refill time with a handheld prototype device: a comparative validation study

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the predictability of the hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction (HeLP) score and the Tufts Splenic Tumor Assessment Tool (T-STAT) for hemangiosarcoma and malignancy, respectively.

ANIMALS

261 dogs undergoing splenectomy for a splenic mass.

METHODS

Medical records were retrospectively reviewed; variables for the HeLP score and T-STAT were collected, and scores were assigned. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each score.

RESULTS

The HeLP score included 141 dogs; hemangiosarcoma was diagnosed in 87 (61.7%) dogs. The median cumulative HeLP score was 51 (range, 17 to 82; IQR, 39 to 58) for dogs with hemangiosarcoma and 28 (range, 0 to 70; IQR, 17 to 41) for dogs without hemangiosarcoma. The categorical HeLP score was low (28; 32.2%), medium (31; 35.6%), and high (28; 32.2%) for dogs with hemangiosarcoma and was low (41; 75.9%), medium (9; 16.7%), and high (4; 7.4%) for dogs without hemangiosarcoma. The AUC of the cumulative and categorical HeLP scores for diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.86) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.82), respectively. The T-STAT included 181 dogs. Lesions were benign in 95 (52.5%) and malignant in 86 (47.5%) dogs. The median T-STAT score was 62% (range, 5% to 98%; IQR, 36% to 77%) for dogs with malignant lesions and 38% (range, 5% to 91%; IQR, 24% to 59%) for dogs with benign lesions. The T-STAT had an AUC of 0.68 (0.60 to 0.76) for diagnosis of malignancy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The HeLP score had acceptable performance, and the T-STAT had poor performance for diagnosis prediction. A tool with excellent or outstanding discrimination is needed to more reliably predict the presence of hemangiosarcoma or a malignant lesion preoperatively.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

whether those behaviors are associated with client caregiver burden, and to determine whether those behaviors contribute to veterinarian stress. Materials and Methods Study design The study was a cross-sectional psychometric validation study and

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To indirectly assess the pancreatic response in healthy dogs that were fed diets of different fat compositions with or without supplemental pancreatic enzymes and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs).

Animals—10 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were fed 4 diets once in random order at 1-week intervals; food was withheld from the dogs for ≥ 12 hours prior to the feeding of each diet. Diets A and B contained 16% and 5% crude fat, respectively; diet C was composed of diet A with pancreatic enzymes; and diet D was composed of diet B with pancreatic enzymes and MCTs. Serum canine trypsin–like immunoreactivity (cTLI) and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations were measured before (0 hours) and at 1 to 2 and 6 hours after feeding. Serum gastrin concentration was measured at 0 hours and at 5 to 10 minutes and 1 to 2 hours after feeding. A gastrin assay validation study was performed to confirm accuracy of test results in dogs. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures general ANOVA.

Results—Serum cTLI, cPLI, or gastrin concentrations in the dogs did not differ among the different diets fed, among dogs, or over time. When multiple comparisons were analyzed, diet D caused the least amount of measurable pancreatic response, although this difference was not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not indicate a significant effect of dietary fat content or addition of supplemental MCT oil or pancreatic enzymes in diets on serum cTLI, cPLI, or gastrin concentrations in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the level of agreement between direct and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained from healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) anesthetized with isoflurane.

Design—Validation study.

Animals—16 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

Procedures—Parrots were anesthetized, and a 26-gauge, 19-mm catheter was placed percutaneously in the superficial ulnar artery for direct measurement of systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial pressures. Indirect blood pressure measurements were obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector and an oscillometric unit. The Bland-Altman method was used to compare direct and indirect blood pressure values.

Results—There was substantial disagreement between direct systolic arterial blood pressure and indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with the Doppler detector from the wing (bias, 24 mm Hg; limits of agreement, −37 to 85 mm Hg) and from the leg (bias, 14 mm Hg; limits of agreement, −14 to 42 mm Hg). Attempts to obtain indirect blood pressure measurements with the oscillometric unit were unsuccessful.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that there was substantial disagreement between indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector in anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and directly measured systolic arterial blood pressure.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare blood biochemical values obtained from a handheld analyzer, 2 tabletop analyzers, and 2 diagnostic laboratories by use of replicate samples of sea turtle blood.

Design—Validation study.

Animals—22 captive juvenile sea turtles.

Procedures—Sea turtles (18 loggerhead turtles [Caretta caretta], 3 green turtles [Chelonia mydas], and 1 Kemp's ridley turtle [Lepidochelys kempii]) were manually restrained, and a single blood sample was obtained from each turtle and divided for analysis by use of the 5 analyzers. Hematocrit and concentrations or activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glucose, total protein, albumin, BUN, uric acid, P, Ca, K, Na, Cl, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase were determined. Median values for each analyte were compared among the analyzers.

Results—Significant differences were found among the analyzers for most values; however, data obtained from the 2 diagnostic laboratories were similar for all analytes. The magnitude of difference between the diagnostic laboratories and in-house units was ≥ 10% for 10 of the 15 analytes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Variance in the results could be attributed in part to differences in analyzer methodology. It is important to identify the specific methodology used when reporting and interpreting biochemical data. Depending on the variable and specific case, this magnitude of difference could conceivably influence patient management.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation for differentiating between clinically relevant and clinically irrelevant cervical spinal cord compression on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Design—Validation study.

Animals—Clinically normal Doberman Pinschers without (n = 11) and with (6) spinal cord compression on MRI and 16 Doberman Pinschers with disk-associated wobbler syndrome (DAWS).

Procedures—After dogs were sedated, transcranial magnetic motor evoked potentials were recorded from the extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECRM) and cranial tibial muscle (CTM). Onset latencies and peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to identify spinal cord compression.

Results—There were significant differences in ECRM and CTM onset latencies between Doberman Pinschers with DAWS and each of the 2 groups of clinically normal dogs, but there were no significant differences in ECRM and CTM onset latencies between the 2 groups of clinically normal dogs. There were significant differences in CTM peak-to-peak amplitudes between Doberman Pinschers with DAWS and each of the 2 groups of clinically normal dogs, but there were no significant differences in ECRM peak-to-peak amplitudes among groups or in CTM peak-to-peak amplitudes between the 2 groups of clinically normal dogs. There was a significant correlation between severity of spinal cord compression and ECRM onset latency, CTM onset latency, and CTM peak-to-peak amplitude.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that transcranial magnetic stimulation may be a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate between clinically relevant and clinically irrelevant spinal cord compression identified on MRI alone.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To establish a technique of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in birds without cardiac disease and describe the imaging planes obtained.

Design—Validation study.

Animals—18 birds including 3 pigeons (Columbia livia), 3 barred owls (Strix varia), 2 red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 goose (Anser anser), 1 mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), 1 Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), 2 brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), 2 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 2 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and 1 military macaw (Ara militaris).

Procedures—For each bird, anesthesia was induced and maintained by use of isoflurane. A pediatric, multiplane transesophageal ultrasound probe was passed into the esophagus and adjusted to the level of the heart for echocardiography. Probe positions were recorded via fluoroscopy, and associated imaging planes were described.

Results—TEE was performed successfully in all birds except the pelicans, 1 Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, and the red-fronted macaws. Five imaging planes of the heart were consistently viewed from 3 positions of the probe (identified as caudal, middle, and cranial positions relative to the cardiac silhouette). M-mode echocardiography of the left ventricle and the aortic root was performed. Color flow and spectral Doppler ultrasonographic images of in- and outflow regions were obtained. One Hispaniolan Amazon parrot died as a result of esophageal perforation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TEE examination of birds was feasible and provided a larger number of imaging planes with better resolution and details than those typically achieved via a transcoelomic approach. However, TEE should be performed with caution in psittacines.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether a selected set of 20 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from beef cattle populations can be used to verify sample tracking in a commercial slaughter facility that processes primarily market (ie, culled) dairy cows.

Design—Prospective, blinded validation study.

Animals—165 cows and 3 bulls from 18 states (82% Holstein, 8% other dairy breeds, and 10% beef breeds).

Procedure—Blood was collected by venipuncture from randomly chosen animals just prior to slaughter. The purported corresponding liver samples were collected during beef processing, and genotype profiles were obtained for each sample.

Results—On the basis of SNP allele frequencies in these cattle, the mean probability that 2 randomly selected individuals would possess identical genotypes at all 20 loci was 4.3 × 10-8. Thus, the chance of a coincidental genotype match between 2 animals was 1 in 23 million. Genotype profiles confirmed appropriate matching for 152 of the 168 (90.5%) purported bloodliver sample pairs and revealed mismatching for 16 (9.5%) pairs. For the 16 mismatched sample pairs, 33% to 76% of the 20 SNP genotypes did not match (mean, 52%). Discordance that could be attributed to genotyping error was estimated to be < 1% on the basis of results for split samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that this selected set of 20 bovine SNP markers is sufficiently informative to verify accuracy of sample tracking in slaughter plants that process beef or dairy cattle. These or similar SNP markers may facilitate high-throughput, DNA-based, traceback programs designed to detect drug residues in tissues, control of animal diseases, and enhance food safety. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1311–1314)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association