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than in serum (189 μmol/L); uroperitoneum was diagnosed. Figure 2 Same image as in Figure 1 . A—Intact urinary bladder wall (arrowhead), surrounded by a marked amount of free peritoneal fluid (asterisk). B—A small urachal defect (arrow) ventral

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

cryptorchidectomy 2 days earlier. An initial diagnosis of uroperitoneum was made on the basis of results of physical examination, serum biochemical analysis, and abdominocentesis. A—Oblique image obtained during retrograde positive-contrast cystourethrography

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

examination revealed severe multifocal ulcerative and suppurative cystitis, which may have resulted in focal rupture. Sepsis may lead to urinary tract rupture and uroperitoneum in neonatal foals, 23,24 and atonia of the bladder with secondary cystitis and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To establish a focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) protocol in dogs, determine whether FAST can be performed by veterinary clinicians without extensive ultrasonographic experience, and assess the frequency of free fluid (as determined via FAST) in the abdominal cavity of dogs following motor vehicle accidents (MVAs).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—100 client-owned dogs evaluated within 24 hours of an MVA.

Procedure—Dogs were placed in lateral recumbency for the FAST examination. To detect fluid in the abdomen, 2 ultrasonographic views (transverse and longitudinal) were obtained at each of 4 sites (just caudal to the xiphoid process, on the midline over the urinary bladder, and at the left and right flank regions).

Results—In the 100 dogs evaluated via FAST, free abdominal fluid was detected in 45 dogs. In 40 of those 45 dogs, abdominocentesis was performed; hemoperitoneum and uroperitoneum were diagnosed in 38 and 2 dogs, respectively. Compared with dogs that had no free abdominal fluid detected via FAST, dogs that had free abdominal fluid detected via FAST had significantly higher heart rates and serum lactate concentrations and significantly lower PCVs and total solid concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that FAST is a simple and rapid technique that can be performed on dogs in an emergency setting to detect intra-abdominal free fluid and can be performed by veterinary clinicians with minimal previous ultrasonographic experience. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1198–1204)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the small urinary bladder, identified by the paired umbilical arteries (arrowheads) and urachus (arrow). The top of the figure is dorsal. The ultrasound probe was placed caudal to the umbilicus in a transverse plane. Comments Uroperitoneum

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

diagnosis of uroperitoneum was made. Figure 3— Same transabdominal ultrasonographic image of the abdomen as in Figure 1 . Notice the large amount of free anechoic fluid. Transrectal ultrasonographic images of the bladder reveal a full

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

into subcutaneous tissues, uroperitoneum, and urethral stricture formation. 7 , 10 These complications may lead to extended hospitalization times and need for surgical intervention, leading to increased cost of care and, in some cases, humane

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

subsp equi . Treatment included administration of potassium penicillin and fluids, but the foal developed uroperitoneum and was subsequently euthanized. Findings suggest that S equi subsp equi meningoencephalomyelitis should be considered in the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association