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after collection to a commercial laboratory for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Anecdotal information from primary care veterinary practices indicates bacterial urine cultures are often not pursued because of the associated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

not available for several days after submission. Consequently, empirical treatment with antibiotics is typically recommended while urine culture results are pending. 3 – 5 Choosing the most appropriate antibiotic for empirical treatment of APN in cats

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

these recommendations is to discriminate infection from noninfectious diseases that mimic UTI, and thereby promote antimicrobial stewardship and optimal patient care. However, awaiting urine culture results can delay treatment if a patient is infected as

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

hyperadrenocorticism were associated with a 37% to 46% prevalence of positive results for microbial culture of urine samples from dogs. However, in that investigation, 7 40 of 42 (95%) dogs with a positive urine culture result lacked clinical signs of bacterial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of an iodinated, non-ionic contrast medium (iohexol) on quantitative urine culture results in dogs by comparing bacterial growth in urine samples inoculated with E. coli in the presence or

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

lower urinary tract disease, positive radiographic findings (radiodense urocystoliths of homogeneous density and variably sized), supportive urinalysis results (alkaluria, struvite crystalluria, and pyuria), and a positive aerobic urine culture with a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

consisted of a CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, urine culture, heartworm antigen test, indirect (noninvasive) blood pressure monitoring, transabdominal ultrasonography, and abdominal radiography (dorsoventral and ventrodorsal views). Blood typing

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the CCSP), 62 frozen, previously characterized bacterial isolates from canine urine cultures were used. In 2011, all clinical urinary bacterial isolates from the University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center (n = 418) were saved and stored at −80°C

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine the potential clinical usefulness of duplex Doppler estimation of arcuate artery resistive index (a measure of intrarenal blood flow impedance) for diagnosis of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicosis.

Animals

30 adult, female, mixed-breed dogs, allotted to 3 groups of 10 dogs each as: toxic dosage of gentamicin, therapeutic dosage of gentamicin, and saline solution sham equivalent in volume to that of the toxic dosage of gentamicin.

Procedure

After baseline screening to establish normalcy (serum biochemical analysis, endogenous creatinine clearance determination, urinalysis, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, urine culture, gray-scale sonography, and percutaneous ultrasound-guided renal biopsy), results of arcuate artery resistive index determination were compared with serum creatinine and urine specific gravity values on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday data collection schedule for 10 days. Endogenous creatinine clearance determination, ultrasound-guided renal biopsy, and urine culture were repeated at the end of data collection in all 3 groups.

Results

Significant differences in resistive index measurements were not observed, despite clinicopathologic and renal biopsy results compatible with severe acute tubular necrosis in dogs of the toxic dosage group.

Conclusions

Duplex Doppler sonography of arcuate artery blood flow impedance, expressed as the resistive index, appears to have poor clinical usefulness as a diagnostic tool in this disorder.

Clinical Relevance

Normal arcuate artery resistive index values obtained in dogs for which aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicosis is suspected do not exclude the disorder. If abnormal arcuate artery resistive index values are obtained for such dogs, further evaluation for nephropathies other than aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxi-cosis may be considered. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1536–1544)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the diagnostic usefulness of semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria assays and urine albumin-to-creatinine (UAC) ratio for detecting disease in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—441 cats evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital.

Procedures—Urine samples from cats for which a complete medical record was available were included. Urine dipstick results, urine protein-to-creatinine ratios (cutoffs, 0.1 and 0.4), semiquantitative and quantitative microalbuminuria assay results (cutoff, 1 mg/dL), and UAC ratio values (cutoffs, 100 and 200 mg/g) were determined. Clinical diagnoses determined within 3 months of enrollment were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity were determined with disease status used as the standard. The influences of clinical diagnosis, sex, age, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, blood pressure, bacterial urine culture results, rectal temperature, pyuria, hematuria, and bacteriuria were evaluated by means of logistic regression.

Results—Of 441 cats that were eligible for inclusion, 40 were healthy and 401 had ≥ 1 disease. Results of logistic regression indicated that significant associations existed for age, presence of disease, presence of urinary tract disease, azotemia, hematuria, and pyuria and results of 1 or both of the microalbuminuria assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Microalbuminuria was associated with underlying disease. Sensitivity and specificity of the microalbuminuria assays for detection of systemic disease were superior to those of other tests. Microalbuminuria testing in conjunction with other screening procedures may increase identification of occult disease. A prospective study evaluating the predictive values of screening tests with and without microalbuminuria determination is needed to validate this recommendation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association