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, elevations in uric acid are not renal specific, and interspecies variation exists. 2 , 11 , 12 Hyperuricemia can also result from severe dehydration and increased dietary intake of protein or purines. 2 , 12 The degree of elevation in uric acid caused by

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-based mammals usually produce urea, water-based turtles often produce ammonia or urea, and land-based reptiles and birds predominantly excrete uric acid. 2 Results of several studies 3–6 of penguins and falcons have indicated that blood uric acid concentration

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Urine uric acid-to-urine creatinine ratios (uua:uc), urine uric acid concentrations, urine uric acid concentrations corrected for glomerular filtration rate, and urinary uric acid fractional excretions were compared with 24-hour urinary uric acid excretions measured in 6 healthy adult female Beagles. Comparisons, using correlation analysis, were made when dogs consumed a 10.4% protein (dry weight), casein-based diet and a 31.4% protein (dry weight), meat-based diet. The uua:uc, urine uric acid concentrations corrected for glomerular filtration rate, and urinary uric acid fractional excretions were not reliable estimates of 24-hour urinary uric acid excretions during consumption of either diet. Urine uric acid concentrations in samples collected 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours after initiation of collection correlated with 24-hour urinary uric acid excretions when dogs consumed the casein-based diet; correlation was not found at any time interval when dogs consumed the meatbased diet. Therefore, determination of 24-hour urinary uric acid excretion is recommended because uua:uc are unreliable.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effects of dilution and alkalinization, separately and together, on the stability of uric acid in canine urine stored at −20 C.

Design

Prospective-controlled study.

Animals

5 dogs with confirmed ammonium urate uroliths, 6 Beagles, and 6 mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were fed a 31.4% protein (dry weight), meat-based diet for 21 days, and urine samples were collected on day 22. Urine samples were preserved, using combinations of dilution and alkalinization, and divided into 1-ml aliquots for storage at −20 C for 1 to 12 weeks. Urine uric acid concentrations were measured, using high-performance liquid chromatography, on day of collection (baseline), and after 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks.

Results

Alkalinization did not have a significant effect on reproducibility of measurements of uric acid concentrations in urine; however, dilution did have a significant effect. Compared with baseline, uric acid concentrations in urine samples collected from dogs with ammonium urate uroliths and Beagles and diluted 1:10 or 1:20 with deionized water were not different after storage for 1 to 12 weeks. Uric acid concentrations in urine samples collected from mixed-breed dogs did not differ from baseline values during the 12-week storage period whether samples were undiluted or were diluted 1:10 or 1:20 with deionized water.

Conclusions

Measurements of uric acid concentration are most reproducible in canine urine samples stored at −20 C for 1 to 12 weeks when samples are diluted 1:20 with deionized water.

Clinical Relevance

To ensure reproducibility of measurements of uric acid concentration in urine samples collected from dogs affected with urate uroliths, urine should be diluted 1:20 with deionized water. Alkalinization is not necessary, and is not recommended because of the additional step in processing and its potential to interfere with measurement of other urinary analytes. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:787–790)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the influence of 3 diets used to dissolve or prevent ammonium urate uroliths in dogs, and a diet formulated for growth, on 24-hour excretions of uric acid, ammonia, net acid, titratable acid, bicarbonate, and creatinine: 24-hour urine volumes: pH values of 24-hour urine samples; plasma uric acid concentration; serum creatinine concentration; and endogenous creatinine clearance values.

Design

Randomized block.

Animals

Six reproductively intact female Beagles, 3.9 to 4.2 years old, weighing 8.5 to 11.1 kg.

Procedures

Four diets were evaluated for their ability to dissolve magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite) uroliths (diet S); to minimize uric acid excretion (diet U); to minimize clinical signs associated with renal failure (diet K); and to promote growth in pups (diet P). Each diet was fed for 14 days; then 24-hour urine samples were collected. An adult maintenance diet was fed during a 7-day washout period.

Results

Consumption of diet U was associated with lowest plasma uric acid concentration, lowest 24-hour urinary uric acid, ammonia, titratable acid, and net acid excretions, lowest endogenous creatinine clearance values, highest 24-hour urinary bicarbonate excretion and urine pH values, and highest 24-hour urine volumes. Consumption of diet P was associated with opposite results; results of consumption of diets S and K were intermediate between those for diets U and P.

Conclusion

Consumption of diet U by healthy Beagles is associated with reduced magnitude of urinary excretion of uric acid and ammonia, with alkaluria, and with polyuria, which may be beneficial in the management of ammonium urate uroliths in dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Results support use of diet U for management of ammonium urate urolithiasis in dogs.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:324-328)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine, uric acid, and allantoin, which are breakdown products of adenine nucleotides, were measured in Standardbred and Finnhorse trotters during and after an exercise test on a high-speed treadmill, after an incremental exercise test performed on a racetrack, and after a racing competition. Fiber-type composition of the middle gluteal muscle and the muscle concentrations of adenine nucleotides and inosine monophosphate were measured after the racetrack test. Changes in the concentration of hypoxanthine were not observed in any of the tests. Peak concentration of uric acid was measured between 5 and 30 minutes after exercise, and it was three- to tenfold higher than the value at rest. The variability can be explained by intensity of the exercise test and variation among horses. The concentration of allantoin after exercise was 2 to 3 times as high as that at rest, depending on the intensity of the exercise, although the absolute increase was about 10 times as high as the increase in the concentration of uric acid. Peak values of allantoin for the treadmill and the racetrack tests were obtained 4 to 6 minutes after exercise and < 30 minutes after the races. Peak concentration of allantoin correlated positively with the percentage of type-II (IIA + IIB) fibers in the middle gluteal muscle. Significant correlations were not observed between plasma concentration of uric acid or allantoin and muscle concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (atp) or inosine monophosphate. It can be concluded that in horses, breakdown of atp during and after exercise continues until allantoin is produced. The peak concentration of allantoin increases with the intensity of exercise, is reached rapidly after exercise, and the variation in the time to the peak value is small among horses. It is suggested that the main source of allantoin is the fast-twitch, type-II fibers and that the mixed muscle concentrations of adenine nucleotides are of limited value when estimating the effects of exercise on atp content of the muscle tissue.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Urine activity product ratios of uric acid, sodium urate, and ammonium urate and urinary excretion of metabolites were determined in 24-hour samples produced by 6 healthy Beagles during periods of consumption of a low-protein, casein-based diet (diet A) and a high-protein, meat-based diet (diet B). Comparison of effects of diet A with those of diet B revealed: significantly lower activity product ratios of uric acid (P = 0.025), sodium urate (P = 0.045), and ammonium urate (P = 0.0045); significantly lower 24-hour urinary excretion of uric acid (P = 0.002), ammonia (P = 0.0002), sodium (P = 0.01), calcium (P = 0.005), phosphorus (P = 0.0003), magnesium (P = 0.01), and oxalic acid (P = 0.004); significantly (P = 0.0001) higher 24-hour urine pH; and significantly (P = 0.01) lower endogenous creatinine clearance. These results suggest that consumption of diet A minimizes changes in urine that predispose dogs to uric acid, sodium urate, and ammonium urate urolithiasis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Hyperxanthinuria and xanthine uroliths have been recognized with increased frequency in dogs with ammonium urate uroliths that had been given allopurinol. We hypothesized that dietary modification might reduce the magnitude of uric acid and xanthine excretion in urine of dogs given allopurinol. To test this hypothesis, excretion of metabolites, volume, and pH were determined in 24-hour urine samples produced by 6 healthy Beagles during periods of allopurinol administration (15 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h) and consumption of 2 special purpose diets: a 10.4% protein (dry matter), casein-based diet and a 31.4% protein (dry matter), meat-based diet.

Significantly lower values of uric acid (P = 0.004), xanthine (P = 0.003), ammonia (P = 0.0002), net acid (P = 0.0001), titratable acid (P = 0.0002), and creatinine (P = 0.01) excreted during a 24-hour period were detected when dogs consumed the casein-based diet and were given allopurinol, compared with the 24-hour period when the same dogs consumed the meat-based diet and were given allopurinol. For the same 24-hour period, urine pH values, urine volumes, and urine bicarbonate values were significantly (P = 0.0004, P = 0.04, and P = 0.002, respectively) higher during the period when the dogs were fed the casein-based diet and given allopurinol than when they were fed the meat-based diet and given allopurinol. Endogenous creatinine clearance was significantly (P = 0.006) lower when dogs were fed the casein-based diet and given allopurinol than when they were fed the meat-based diet and given allopurinol. Significantly lower concentrations of plasma uric acid (P = 0.0001), plasma xanthine (P = 0.01), and serum urea nitrogen (P = 0.0001) were detected when dogs consumed the casein-based diet and were given allopurinol than when they consumed the meat-based diet and were given allopurinol. On the basis of these results, use of the casein-based diet and allopurinol in protocols designed for dissolution of urate uroliths may be beneficial in preventing hyperxanthinuria and xanthine urolith formation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Casein has been used as a protein source in diets designed to dissolve canine ammonium urate uroliths and to prevent their recurrence, because it contains fewer purine precursors than do many other sources of protein. However, an important question is whether reduced quantities of dietary casein have any benefit in modifying saturation of urine with urates. To answer this question, activity productd ratios of uric acid, sodium urate, and ammonium urate were determined in 24-hour urine samples produced by 6 healthy Beagles during periods of consumption of a 10.4% protein, casein-based (10.4% casein) diet and a 20.8% protein, casein-based (20.8% casein) diet. Significantly lower activity product. ratios of uric acid, sodium urate, and ammonium urate were observed when dogs consumed the 10.4% casein diet. Significantly lower 24-hour urinary excretions of ammonia and phosphorus were observed when dogs consumed the 10.4% casein diet. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretions of magnesium and 24-hour urine pH values were significantly higher when dogs were fed the 10.4% casein diet. These results suggest that use of the 10.4% casein diet in protocols designed for dissolution and prevention of uric acid, sodium urate, and ammonium urate uroliths in dogs may be beneficial.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Urine activity product ratios of uric acid (aprua), sodium urate (aprna), and ammonium urate (aprau), and urinary excretion of 10 metabolites were determined in 24-hour urine samples produced by 6 healthy Beagles during periods of consumption of 4 diets containing approximately 11% protein (dry weight) and various protein sources: a 72% moisture, casein-based diet; a 10% moisture, egg-based diet; a 72% moisture, chicken-based diet; and a 71% moisture, chicken-based, liver-flavored diet. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher aprua, aprna, and aprau were observed when dogs consumed the egg-based diet, compared with the other 3 diets; there were no differences in these ratios among the other 3 diets.

Twenty-four-hour urinary excretions of chloride, potassium, phosphorus, and oxalic acid were significantly (P < 0.05) higher when dogs consumed the egg-based diet. Twenty-four-hour urinary excretions of sodium were significantly (P < 0.05) higher when dogs consumed the egg-based diet, compared with the casein-based diet and the chicken-based, liver-flavored diet, but were not significantly different between the egg-based diet and chicken-based diet. Twenty-four-hour urine volume was similar when dogs consumed the 4 diets. Twenty-four-hour endogenous creatinine clearance was significantly (P < 0.05 lower when dogs consumed the casein based diet there were no differences among the other 3 diets. Although consumption all diets was associated with production alkaline urine, the 24-hour urine pH was significantly (P < 0.05) higher when dogs consumed the egg-based diet.

These results suggest that use diets containing approximately 10.5% protein (dry weight) and 70 moisture protocols designed for dissolution and prevention urate uroliths may be beneficial. The source dietary protein in canned formulated diets does not appear significantly influence the saturation of urine with uric acid, sodium urate, or ammonium urate.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research