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nasopharyngeal swab (DNP), transtracheal wash (TTW), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) being most common. 11 Each sampling method has advantages and disadvantages, but research shows that agreement among the different methods for the detection of bacterial

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

90 of S equi subsp zooepidemicus isolates obtained by bacteriologic culture of transtracheal-wash fluid from the lower respiratory tract of horses was reported to be 0.12 μg/mL for trimethoprim and 2.38 μg/mL for sulfadiazine. 19 A pilot

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

large amounts of mucus within the trachea and oral cavity. In these affected snakes, a definitive diagnosis is important for the choice of treatments as well as for an appropriate prognosis. An important diagnostic tool is the use of a transtracheal wash

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

Medical records of 21 horses with summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease were reviewed, and history, signalment, clinical signs, radiographic signs, clinicopathologic data, and therapeutic response were determined. Most affected horses were used as pleasure horses, and for the most part, remained at pasture when not in use. The mean age (± SD) was 13.7 ± 3.6 years. Clinical signs included intermittent nasal discharge, cough, tachypnea, labored expiratory effort, and crackles and wheezes on auscultation. Radiography frequently revealed interstitial patterns in the lung fields; in horses with chronic disease, pulmonary overinflation was evident. Hemogram was usually normal, and transtracheal wash fluid was characterized by nondegenerate neutrophils.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare the effect of a single parenteral injection of tilmicosin with that of a single dose of a long-acting oxytetracycline as treatment in the early stages of naturally acquired undifferentiated respiratory tract disease in young dairy calves.

Design

Prospective clinical trial, randomized block design.

Animals

40 dairy calves.

Procedure

78 calves from 5 farms were examined weekly until 3 months old. When respiratory tract disease was diagnosed by a veterinarian, the calf was assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Transtracheal wash samples were acquired to characterize the pathogens. The veterinarian, who was unaware of treatment assignments, examined calves for 3 days after treatment and evaluated severity, using a scoring system. Growth rates were measured.

Results

On the basis of response to initial treatment, relapse rates, and effect on growth rates, the antibiotics were determined to be equally effective. Severity of clinical disease was significantly (P < 0.03) less for the tilmicosin-treated calves on days 2 and 3 after treatment. Findings from analysis of transtracheal wash samples indicated Pasteurella multocida (25/40), P haemolytica (4/40), Haemophilus somnus (4/40), Actinomyces pyogenes (3/40), and Aspergillus sp (2/40). Mycoplasma was isolated in association with bacterial isolates in 22 calves.

Clinical Implications

Tilmicosin and oxytetracycline are effective in treatment of respiratory tract disease in young calves, even when Mycoplasma spp are involved. Tilmicosin is more effective in resolving clinical signs. Early treatment of dairy calves with respiratory tract disease may decrease detrimental effects on growth.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A milking herd consisting of 55 Holstein cows had experienced abortions in several cows, as well as congenital malformations in 1 newborn calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from blood mononuclear cell samples obtained from several cattle, documenting 1 acute infection and 8 persistently infected carriers identified by clinical appearance and laboratory testing. Initial suspicion of persistently infected status in some, but not all animals, was facilitated by poor growth rates in some calves. Virus isolation was performed on transtracheal wash fluid obtained from acutely and persistently infected cattle with respiratory tract infection. We describe the measures taken to identify and characterize the infecting virus strain, and the series of actions taken to identify and eliminate persistently infected carriers in a herd experiencing several related problems that were shown to be caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe the incidence of respiratory tract disease in dairy calves and to compare antibody titers and microbial isolates from transtracheal wash samples between calves with and without respiratory tract disease (cases and controls, respectively).

Design

Prospective observational cohort study, with matched case-control substudy.

Animals

410 dairy heifers; in substudy, 105 cases and 59 controls from the same population.

Procedure

Calves were examined weekly by a veterinarian during the first 3 months of life. Blood samples were collected for serologic testing at the first visit for each calf and during acute and convalescent periods for cases. Transtracheal wash samples also were obtained during the acute period from cases and controls.

Results

Incidence and case-fatality risk for clinician-diagnosed pneumonia were 25.6 and 2.2%, respectively. Mycoplasma sp and Pasteurella multocida together were isolated from 29% of cases and 11% of controls, and Mycoplasma sp alone from 7% of cases and 30% of controls (both P ≤ 0.05). From postcolostral to acute-phase serum samples, Mycoplasma dispar titers increased 1.3-fold among cases, compared with 0.7-fold among controls; from acute- to convalescent-phase samples, Μ dispar titers increased 2.4-fold among cases, compared with 5.6-fold among controls (both P ≤ 0.005).

Clinical Implications

Results of this study suggested a synergistic effect between Mycoplasma sp and P multocida and a possible initiative role of Μ dispar in the development of respiratory tract disease. Postcolostral total IgG values and antibody titers were not significantly different between cases and controls, implying that other factors have an important role in the development of respiratory tract disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:2035-2042)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

indicated that the horse had hyperfibrinogenemia (700 mg/dL [reference range, 100 to 400 mg/dL]). Assessment of transtracheal wash samples revealed neutrophilic inflammation (76% nondegenerate neutrophils, 21% large mononuclear cells, and 3% small

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

been examined between 1993 and 2002 and in which both thoracic radiography and an endotracheal or transtracheal wash procedure had been performed. Dogs were included in the study if they had been examined because of clinical signs related to respiratory

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

). Differential diagnoses included fungal pneumonia, interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary neoplasia. Transtracheal wash aspirates were collected and submitted for bacterial and fungal culture. Endoscopy of the airway subsequently revealed a mild accumulation of

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association