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Summary

Transfusion practices in dogs treated at Tufts University Foster Hospital for Small Animals were monitored for 1 year before and 2 years after receipt (by the School) of a Transfusion Medicine Academic Award, a 5-year National Institutes of Health curriculum and career development grant. The most important changes observed were increased use of packed rbc instead of fresh whole blood for initial treatment of anemia and hemorrhage attributable to coagulopathies and surgery. In addition, increased use of plasma was part of the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Change was not observed in the use of plasma for dogs with hypoalbuminemia.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

transfusion medicine research in nondomestic veterinary patients, extrapolation of the present study’s results may benefit other species, including elasmobranchs, terrestrial turtles, and lizards. 27 – 29 The significant negative bias between PCV and Hct

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, 2006 . Available at: www.aabb.org/Content/About_Blood/Facts_About_Blood_and_Blood_Banking/aabb_faqs.ht m#2 . Accessed May 25, 2006 . 3 Hohenhaus AE . Blood banking and transfusion medicine . In: Ettinger SJ Feldman EC , ed. Textbook of

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the number of and reasons for RBC transfusions, incidence of acute transfusion reactions, prevalence of blood types, volume of blood administered, change in PCV, and clinical outcome in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—126 cats that received RBC transfusions.

Procedure—Medical records of cats that received whole blood or packed RBC transfusions were reviewed for signalment, blood type, pre- and posttransfusion PCV, volume of blood product administered, clinical diagnosis and cause of anemia, clinical signs of acute transfusion reactions, and clinical outcome.

Results—Mean volume of whole blood administered IV was 17.2 mL/kg (7.8 mL/lb) versus 9.3 mL/kg (4.2 mL/lb) for packed RBCs. Ninety-four percent of cats had blood type A. Mean increase in PCV among all cats was 6%. Fifty-two percent of cats had anemia attributed to blood loss, 10% had anemia attributed to hemolysis, and 38% had anemia attributed to erythropoietic failure. Acute transfusion reactions occurred in 11 cats. Sixty percent of cats survived until discharge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—RBC transfusions resulted in an increase in PCV in cats with all causes of anemia in this study. The rate of death was greater than in cats that did not receive transfusions, but seriousness of the underlying disease in the 2 groups may not be comparable. Death rate of cats that received transfusions was not attributable to a high rate of transfusion reactions. Results confirm that pretransfusion blood typing or crossmatching is required to minimize the risk of adverse reactions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:920–923)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Modular, porous-coated, titanium segmental endoprostheses were implanted bilaterally in the femoral diaphysis of 7 adult mixed-breed dogs. Autogenous bone graft in particle form was placed around the implant and bone. In 1 limb, homologous fibrin adhesive was mixed with the graft in situ before soft tissue closure. The contralateral limb was grafted in identical manner, but without fibrin adhesive, and served as a control. Radiography was performed immediately after surgery and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks later to assess callus area and bone remodeling. At 12 weeks, dogs were euthanatized and bone/implant fixation strength was tested under torsion and compared with values for 6 in vitro controls. Histomorphometric and microradiographic analyses of transverse sections of the distal portion of the implanted femurs were performed. Radiographic callus area was significantly (P < 0.05) smaller in the femurs grafted with fibrin adhesive, compared with the contralateral control. New bone formation (21.4 ± 1.8% vs 19.2 ± 2.4%), unlabeled bone (64.8 ± 3.0% vs 67.9 ± 4.2%), porosity (13.9 ± 0.7% vs 12.9 ± 0.8%), and bone ingrowth into the porous coating (10.3 ± 0.9% vs 10.0 ± 1.2%) were not significantly different between fibrin- and nonfibrin-grafted implants, respectively. There were no significant differences in torsional strength of implant fixation between the fibrin- and nonfibrin-grafted femurs or between the in vivo implanted femurs and the in vitro controls. These data indicate that fibrin adhesive may have been advantageous in maintaining apposition of bone graft adjacent to the endoprosthesis, but it probably did not have an enhancing effect on extracortical bone bridging or ingrowth over a porous-coated segmental bone replacement endoprosthesis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β stimulation on expression of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-5 and Wnt signaling pathway genes in equine chondrocytes.

Sample—Macroscopically normal articular cartilage samples from 6 horses and osteochondral fragments (OCFs) from 3 horses.

Procedures—Chondrocyte pellets were prepared and cultured without stimulation or following stimulation with IL-6 or IL-1β for 1, 2, 12, and 48 hours; expression of GDF-5 was determined with a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Expression of genes in various signaling pathways was determined with microarrays for pellets stimulated for 1 and 2 hours. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to detect GDF-5, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), and β-catenin proteins in macroscopically normal cartilage samples and OCFs.

Results—Chondrocytes stimulated with IL-6 had significantly higher GDF-5 expression within 2 hours versus unstimulated chondrocytes. Microarray analysis of Wnt signaling pathway genes indicated expression of GSK-3β and coiled-coil domain containing 88C increased after 1 hour and expression of β-catenin decreased after 2 hours of IL-6 stimulation. Results of immunohistochemical detection of proteins were similar to microarray analysis results. Chondrocytes in macroscopically normal articular cartilage and OCFs had immunostaining for GDF-5.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated IL-6 stimulation decreased chondrocyte expression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway transactivator β-catenin, induced expression of inhibitors of the Wnt pathway, and increased expression of GDF-5. This suggested IL-6 may inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway with subsequent upregulation of GDF-5 expression. Anabolic extracellular matrix metabolism in OCFs may be attributable to GDF-5 expression. This information could be useful for development of cartilage repair methods.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of various storage conditions on one-stage prothrombin time (OSPT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen concentration of canine plasma collected for transfusion.

Sample Population—Plasma from 9 dogs.

Procedure—Whole blood was collected from dogs by means of jugular venipuncture and centrifuged at 7,300 × g for 20 minutes at 0 C. A plasma extractor was then used to generate plasma. Aliquots of plasma were collected in segments of plastic tubing and in microcentrifuge tubes, and plasma collection bags, tubing segments, and microcentrifuge tubes were immediately frozen at –30 C. Additional tubing segments and microcentrifuge tubes were stored at 2 C. After 1 week of storage, all samples were thawed, and OSPT, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration were measured. Collection bags and microcentrifuge tubes were refrozen at –30 C, and values were measured again 30 days after blood collection.

Results—Values for OSPT, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration did not vary significantly with storage time, temperature, or container.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that storage for up to 30 days and at 2 C versus –30 C did not have any significant effect on hemostatic parameters of canine plasma obtained for transfusion. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:734–735)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe the procedure for autologous blood donation and associated complications in cats undergoing partial craniectomy for mass removal.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—15 cats with intracranial mass confirmed by computed tomographic scan, no evidence of renal failure, and PCV ≥ 22%.

Procedure—One unit (60 ml) of blood was collected and stored 7 to 17 days before surgery and transfused during the perioperative period if needed. The PCV was measured before donation, before surgery, during surgery, and after surgery to assess effect of donation on PCV before surgery and effect of transfusion on PCV after surgery. Cats were evaluated for donation complications, iatrogenic anemia, and adverse reactions associated with administration of autologous blood.

Results—Complications associated with phlebotomy were not detected. Fifteen cats underwent partial craniectomy 7 to 17 days after blood donation; all had histologic confirmation of meningioma by examination of tissue obtained at surgery. Eleven cats received autologous blood transfusions. None of the cats received allogeneic blood transfusions. Transfusion reactions were not observed. Subclinical iatrogenic anemia was detected in 3 cats. Two cats were considered to have received excessive transfusion, and 3 cats received inadequate transfusion. All cats undergoing partial craniectomy were discharged from the hospital and were alive > 6 months after surgery.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Autologous blood donation before surgery was considered safe for cats undergoing partial craniectomy for resection of meningioma. The only complication observed was iatrogenic anemia. The procedure contributed to blood conservation in our hospital. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1584–1588)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (CPDA-1) is an anticoagulant preservative used commonly in human and veterinary blood banking. Currently, CPDA-1 is the preservative of choice in transfusion medicine. 1 Within this compound

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association