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for laparoscopic surgery cannot be acquired simply by performing open surgery and instead require laparoscopic-specific training. 2,3 The ideal program for training and assessment of laparoscopic skills for veterinary and human surgeons is an active

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, compared with more invasive open procedures. 2–9 Despite these advantages, it is well accepted that the skills required for laparoscopic procedures are not directly transferable from open surgery experience, and specific training is needed to adapt to the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

animal and human medical sectors were perceived as working together toward improved health and well-being for the communities. Throughout the world, the one health initiative needs practical examples in workforce development, training, and service

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of initial handling and training on autonomic nervous functions in young Thoroughbreds.

Animals—63 healthy Thoroughbreds.

Procedure—All horses were trained to be handled and initially ridden in September of the yearling year and then trained until the following April by conventional training regimens. To obtain the heart rate (HR), electrocardiograms were recorded in the stable before initial handling and training and following 7 months of training; variations in HR were then evaluated from the power spectrum in terms of the low frequency (LF; 0.01 to 0.07 Hz) power and high frequency (HF; 0.07 to 0.6 Hz) power as indices of autonomic nervous activity. To evaluate the fitness, the V200 (velocity at HR of 200 beat/min), which is reflective of the aerobic capacity of the horse, was measured.

Results—Mean (± SE) resting HR decreased significantly from 41.5 ± 0.8 to 38.7 ± 0.4 beat/min following 7 months of training. The LF power of horses increased significantly from 1,037 ± 128 milliseconds2 in September of the yearling year to 2,944 ± 223 milliseconds2 in the following April. Similarly, the HF power increased significantly from 326 ± 30 milliseconds2 to 576 ± 39 milliseconds2 at the corresponding time points. The V200 increased significantly following training.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increases in LF and HF powers indicate that parasympathetic nervous activity increases in horses by 7 months of training. The decrease in resting HR may be dependent on the training-induced increase of parasympathetic nervous activity in Thoroughbreds. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1488–1491)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Overtraining in human athletes has been described 1 as a long-term decrement in performance capacity resulting from accumulated effects of training-related and nontraining-related stress. Physiologic and psychological signs may or may not be

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Standard 8 states, “Faculty numbers and qualifications must be sufficient to deliver the educational program and fulfill the mission of the college.” This includes “faculty who have education, training, expertise, professional development, or a combination

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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, longer appointment time, and the use of positive rapport-building statements by the veterinarian. 2 Clients surveyed after their veterinarians underwent a communication skills intervention (training program) reported an increased intent to comply with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

operation of long instruments with a fulcrum effect, 2 are not learned by performing conventional open surgery, 1,3 and surgeons can benefit from targeted training. The format and implementation of training to optimize skills improvement is an active area

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

laparoscopic procedures, 16 and a number of recent studies 17–24 evaluating various laparoscopic training and assessment modalities, including the use of simulation training for surgeons, have been published. The MISTELS is a system that was developed and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

at an early age, during growth and maturation. The mechanisms by which the musculoskeletal system responds to early training exercise in horses have been demonstrated and discussed. 3,4 Various frequencies, intensities, and types of exercise during

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research