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), compared with thoracotomy. The purpose of the study reported here was to evaluate thoracoscopy as a treatment for dogs with PRAA and to compare intra- and postoperative complications and short-term outcomes of dogs that underwent thoracoscopy versus

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

CT and thoracotomy. The dog was assigned an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of 3 (on a scale from 1 [healthy] to 5 [moribund]) and was premedicated with hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg, IM), maropitant (1 mg/kg, SC), and pantoprazole

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

creation of a pericardial window (ie, pericardial window technique), partial pericardectomy via thoracoscopy (with or without mass excision), or subtotal pericardectomy via thoracotomy. 6–11 It has been shown that dogs with an idiopathic pericardial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Fourteen cows were subjected to thoracotomy as an aid in the treatment of either septic pericarditis (n = 7) or unilateral pleuritis (fibrous or purulent; n = 7). Thoracic lesions were primary in 4 cows, secondary to traumatic reticuloperitonitis in 9 cows, and secondary to extension of a liver abscess in 1 cow. Thoracotomy was performed on 9 cows under local anesthesia. Surgery was performed on 5 cows under general anesthesia; 2 died during anesthesia, and 2 others were euthanatized. Of the 10 cows allowed to recover from surgery, 4 had pericarditis and 6 had pleuritis. Four cows with pleuritis had thoracic abscesses. All but 1 cow with pericarditis died or were euthanatized, and 5 of the 6 cows with pleuritis were discharged from the hospital. A year after surgery, 1 cow was culled because of infertility, and the other 5 cows were returned to production.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Petco 2) was a reliable estimate of Paco2 in dogs undergoing thoracotomy.

Design

Case series.

Animals

18 dogs that underwent thoracotomy.

Procedure

Paco2 and Petco 2 were measured shortly after induction of anesthesia, while dogs were breathing spontaneously; 5 minutes prior to initial skin incision, while dogs were receiving intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV); 5, 30, and 60 minutes after the thoracic cavity was opened, while dogs were receiving IPPV; and after the thoracic cavity was closed and evacuated, when dogs were again breathing spontaneously. For each period, arterial-end-tidal difference in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Paco2-Petco 2) was compared with Paco2-Petco 2 for the preceding period.

Results

Significant changes in Paco2-Petco 2 from one period to the next were not detected except when values obtained 5 minutes after the thoracic cavity was opened were compared with values obtained 5 minutes before incision. The Paco2-Petco 2 was not constant for individual dogs.

Clinical Implications

Petco 2 was not a reliable indicator of adequacy of ventilation during thoracotomy in these dogs, because it differed greatly from Paco2, and Pac02-PETC02 was not consistent. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:377-379)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate sevoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic for thoracotomy in horses.

Animals—18 horses between 2 and 15 years old.

Procedure—4 horses were used to develop surgical techniques and were euthanatized at the end of the procedure. The remaining 14 horses were selected, because they had an episode of bleeding from their lungs during strenuous exercise. General anesthesia was induced with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight, IV) followed by ketamine (2.0 mg/kg, IV). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen delivered via a circle anesthetic breathing circuit. Ventilation was controlled to maintain PaCO2 at approximately 45 mm Hg. Neuromuscular blocking drugs (succinylcholine or atracurium) were administered to eliminate spontaneous breathing efforts and to facilitate surgery. Cardiovascular performance was monitored and supported as indicated.

Results—2 of the 14 horses not euthanatized died as a result of ventricular fibrillation. Mean (± SD) duration of anesthesia was 304.9 ± 64.1 minutes for horses that survived and 216.7 ± 85.5 minutes for horses that were euthanatized or died. Our subjective opinion was that sevoflurane afforded good control of anesthetic depth during induction, maintenance, and recovery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of sevoflurane together with neuromuscular blocking drugs provides stable and easily controllable anesthetic management of horses for elective thoracotomy and cardiac manipulation. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1430–1437)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

or a continuous intradermal closure alone with 2-0 or 3-0 poliglecaprone 25 without subsequent skin suture placement. OT —Dogs in the OT group underwent traditional thoracotomy through either an intercostal approach or median sternotomy. Lung

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Eighteen dogs undergoing lateral thoracotomy at the left fifth intercostal space were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 postoperative analgesic treatment groups of 6 dogs each as follows: group A, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg of body weight, im; group B, 0.5% bupivacaine, 1.5 mg/kg given interpleurally; and group C, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg given interpleurally. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas tensions, alveolar-arterial oxygen differences, rectal temperature, pain score, and pulmonary mechanics were recorded hourly for the first 8 hours after surgery, and at postoperative hours 12, 24, and 48. These values were compared with preoperative (control) values for each dog. Serum morphine and cortisol concentrations were measured at 10, 20, and 30 minutes, hours 1 to 8, and 12 hours after treatment administration.

All dogs had significant decreases in pHa, PaO2 , and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and significant increases in PaCO2 and alveolar-arterial oxygen differences in the postoperative period, but these changes were less severe in group-B dogs. Decreases of 50% in lung compliance, and increases of 100 to 200% in work of breathing and of 185 to 383% in pulmonary resistance were observed in all dogs after surgery. Increases in work of breathing were lower, and returned to preoperative values earlier in group-B dogs. The inspiratory time-to-total respiratory time ratio was significantly higher in group-B dogs during post-operative hours 5 to 8, suggesting improved analgesia. Blood pressure was significantly lower in group-A dogs for the first postoperative hour. Significant decreases in rectal temperature were observed in all dogs after surgery, and hypothermia was prolonged in dogs of groups A and C. Significant differences in pain score were not observed between treatment groups. Cortisol concentration was high in all dogs after anesthesia and surgery, and was significantly increased in group-B dogs at hours 4 and 8. Significant differences in serum morphine concentration between groups A and C were only observed 10 minutes after treatment administration. In general, significant differences in physiologic variables between groups A and C were not observed.

Results of the study indicate that anesthesia and thoracotomy are associated with significant alterations in pulmonary function and lung mechanics. Interpleurally administered bupivacaine appears to be associated with fewer blood gas alterations and earlier return to normal of certain pulmonary function values. Interpleural administration of morphine does not appear to provide any advantages, in terms of analgesia or pulmonary function, compared with its im administration.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

bulla or a leaking bronchus after the previous surgery, a left-sided intercostal thoracotomy (sixth intercostal space) was performed under general anesthesia as described for exploration of the thoracic cavity. The left cranial lung lobe was inspected

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association