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Introduction During the COVID-19 pandemic, public health organizations urged for increased use of virtual interactions to help limit person-to-person contact. 1 Telemedicine has been promoted as a critical tool by which health-care needs may

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Veterinary telemedicine: a literature review . Vet Evid . 2020 ; 5 ( 4 ): 1 – 26 . doi: 10.18849/ve.v5i4.349 3. Ouyang Z . Health Informatics in Veterinary Medicine: State of the Literature, Day-1 Competencies, Perceptions of Telemedicine and

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, competence in performing and interpreting sonograms is variable and can be poor despite extensive practice. 7 – 11 Telemedicine allows patients to access medical expertise that would be otherwise unavailable, and current pocket sized ultrasounds have

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Telemedicine is in its infancy as a clinical application in veterinary medicine, despite increasing use in human medicine. There is currently no strict definition of telemedicine, but it can be loosely described as the use of information and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Schnauzers undergoing radiographs between March 1, 2022, and February 28, 2023. The radiographs had been previously submitted to IDEXX for telemedicine review. Dogs were included if they had 3 view thoracic radiographs performed (left and right lateral, 1

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the enhancement accuracy of a triple-phase abdominal CT angiography (CTA) protocol in dogs and explore the patient, scan, and contrast parameters associated with accuracy of enhancement.

ANIMALS

233 client-owned dogs that underwent routine abdominal CTA.

PROCEDURES

During each CTA study, the subjective timing accuracy (early, ideal, late) of the 3 obtained vascular phases (arterial, venous, delayed) was scored by consensus (2 reviewers) at 4 target organs (liver, pancreas, left kidney, and spleen). These scores were evaluated for statistical associations with 21 study variables (patient, scan, and contrast medium). The objective enhancement (HU) for each target organ was also compared statistically with subjective timing accuracy scores and the study variables.

RESULTS

The study protocol performed best for the pancreas, moderately for the liver, and worse for the spleen and left kidney. Measurements of scan length and time were associated positively with phase lateness for most target organs and phases. Increased heart rate was the most significant patient factor associated positively with phase lateness within the liver (all phases), pancreas (arterial and venous phases), and kidney (arterial phase). Contrast medium variables were less associated with timing accuracy in this protocol. Objective enhancement (HU) correlated poorly with subjective phase timing accuracy and study variables.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Scan time, scan length, and heart rate were the predominant variables contributing to lateness in this canine abdominal CTA protocol. The findings of this exploratory study may aid in protocol adjustment and choice of included anatomy for dogs undergoing routine abdominal CTA.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure the mitral annulus in dogs. Our hypothesis was that mitral measurement would be possible and consistent among observers using CT.

SAMPLE

Thoracic CT scans of dogs without known heart disease.

PROCEDURES

Five trained investigators measured 4 aspects of the mitral valve and the fourth thoracic vertebrae (T4) length using multiplanar reformatting tools. Ten randomly chosen animals were measured by all investigators to determine interobserver reliability.

RESULTS

There were 233 CT scans eligible for inclusion. Dogs weighed 2 to 96 kg (mean, 28.1 kg), with a variety of breeds represented. Golden Retrievers (n = 28) and Labrador Retrievers (n = 37) were overrepresented. The intraclass correlations were all greater than 0.9, showing excellent agreement between observers. The means and SDs of each measurement were as follows: trigone-to-trigone distance, 17.2 ± 4.7 mm; the remaining circumference, 79.0 ± 17.5 mm; commissure-to-commissure distance, 30.8 ± 6.5 mm; septal leaflet-to-lateral leaflet distance, 26.3 ± 6.0 mm; T4 length, 16.9 ± 3.1 mm; and the total circumference normalized by T4, 5.7 ± 0.7 mm.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides information that may help in the development of future treatment for mitral valve dysfunction and subsequent annular enlargement.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine signalment, clinical signs, concurrent diseases, response to surgical treatment, and long-term outcome of ferrets with bilateral adrenal tumors or adrenal hyperplasia.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

56 ferrets with bilateral adrenal tumors or adrenal hyperplasia confirmed histologically following subtotal bilateral adrenalectomy.

Procedure

Medical records of all ferrets with bilateral adrenal tumors or hyperplasia examined between 1994 and 1997 were reviewed. Ferrets underwent a subtotal bilateral adrenalectomy or a unilateral adrenalectomy initially, followed by a unilateral subtotal adrenalectomy when tumors or hyperplasia later developed on the contralateral adrenal gland. A long-term follow-up of a minimum of 18 months after final adrenal gland surgery was obtained by examination of medical records and follow-up telephone conversations.

Results

Clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism included bilaterally symmetric alopecia, return to male sexual behavior in castrated male ferrets, or swollen vulva in spayed female ferrets. Surgical treatment of bilateral adrenal disease by subtotal bilateral adrenalectomy (or unilateral adrenalectomy followed by contralateral unilateral subtotal adrenalectomy) was effective with a mortality rate of < 2%. Only 3 (5%) ferrets required glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid replacement following subtotal bilateral adrenalectomy. Recurrence after bilateral adrenalectomy was 15% with a mean long-term follow-up period of 30 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Bilaterally symmetric alopecia, return to male sexual behavior in castrated male ferrets, or swollen vulva in spayed female ferrets are indicative of adrenal tumors or adrenal hyperplasia in ferrets. Surgical treatment of bilateral adrenal disease by subtotal bilateral adrenalectomy is effective, with a low rate of complications and postoperative recurrence rate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:820–823)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association