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( Figure 1 ) . Upon exploration of the wound, extensive communication with the fractured MT4 was appreciated. Following aseptic preparation, the tarsometatarsal (TMT) joint and distal intertarsal (DIT) joint were accessed from the medial aspect of the limb

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. 1 The intricate anatomy of the tarsus is well described in the veterinary literature. 1–4 Tarsal ligaments are susceptible to both degenerative and traumatic injuries. 5,6 Luxation or subluxation of the tarsometatarsal joint is reportedly uncommon

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Osteoarthritis of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints (bone spavin) is one of the most common causes of hind limb lameness in horses. 1 A large proportion of horses with performance-limiting osteoarthritis of the distal intertarsal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

third metatarsal bones with stabilization of the medial compartment of the tarsometatarsal joint without permanent joint immobilization. The first 3 options were declined by the owner because of the associated high risk of complications and the potential

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Osteoarthritis of the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints can be a debilitating cause of lameness in many equine athletes. 1,2 Pain associated with osteoarthritic changes originates in the synovial membrane, joint capsule, periarticular

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the study reported here was to use histologic examination to investigate age-related changes in thickness and morphologic characteristics of hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage, total cartilage, and SCB at specific locations in the tarsometatarsal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ASI Asymmetry index DIT Distal intertarsal TMT Tarsometatarsal a. Bohanon TC. Chemical fusion of the distal intertarsal joints with sodium monoiodoacetate in 38 horses clinically affected with bone spavin (abstr). Vet Surg 1995;24:421 b

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Nardini for technical assistance with the manuscript and figures. ABBREVIATIONS MT2 Second metatarsal bone MT3 Third metatarsal bone MT4 Fourth metatarsal bone TMT Tarsometatarsal Footnotes a. Somatom Volume Zoom, Siemens Spa

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To study the effect of unilateral synovitis in the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints on locomotion, including the compensating effects within and between limbs.

Animals—4 clinically normal horses.

Procedure—Gait analyses including kinematics, force plate, and inverse dynamic analysis were performed at the trot before lameness, after which synovitis was induced by injecting endotoxin into the right distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints. Gait analyses were repeated 24 to 30 hours later during lameness. Differences between the stride variables during the 2 conditions (lame and sound) were identified.

Results—Tarsal joint range of motion, peak vertical force, and vertical impulse were decreased during lameness. Mechanical deficits included a decrease in negative work performed by the tarsal extensors during the early stance phase and a decrease in positive work by the tarsal extensors during push off. No compensatory changes in work were performed by other joints within the lame hind limb during the stance phase. Vertical impulse in the diagonal forelimb decreased, but there were no significant changes in forces or impulses in the ipsilateral forelimb or contralateral hind limb.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that horses are able to manage mild, unilateral hind limb lameness by reducing the airborne phase of the stride rather than by increased loading of the compensating limbs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1491–1495)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify hind limb and pelvic kinematic variables that change in trotting horses after induced lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and after subsequent intra-articular administration of anesthetic.

Animals—8 clinically normal adult horses.

Procedure—Kinematic measurements were made before and after transient endotoxin-induced lameness of the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints and after intra-articular administration of anesthetic. Fourteen displacement and joint angle (metatarsophalangeal [fetlock] and tarsal joints) measurements were made on the right hind limb, sacrum, and the right and left tubera coxae. Kinematic measurements were compared by general linear models, using a repeated measures ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparisons between treatments were evaluated with a Fisher least squared difference test at α = 0.05.

Results—After lameness induction, fetlock and tarsal joint extension during stance decreased, fetlock joint flexion and hoof height during swing increased, limb protraction decreased, and vertical excursion of the tubera coxae became more asymmetric. After intra-articular administration of anesthetic, limb protraction returned to the degree seen before lameness, and vertical excursion of the tubera coxae became more symmetric.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased length of hind limb protraction and symmetry of tubera coxae vertical excursion are sensitive indicators of improvement in tarsal joint lameness. When evaluating changes in tarsal joint lameness, evaluating the horse from the side (to assess limb protraction) is as important as evaluating from the rear (to assess pelvic symmetry). (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1031–1036)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research