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available that provide sustained local therapy at sites that cannot be left open or removed. Access to products to provide sustained release of silver at these sites may enhance the management of infections while minimizing systemic antimicrobial use

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lipophilic, which has facilitated the development of sustained-release transdermal patches in humans. These patches provide relief from pain for up to 96 hours and have been indicated for a variety of pain-related conditions, including severe chronic pain and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

impossible for client-owned rabbits outside the hospital setting. The frequent handling required for injections is also likely to be stressful for rabbits, particularly after surgery. A new sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine reportedly provides

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

plasma concentration-versus-time curve LLOQ Lower limit of quantification MRT Mean residence time SR Sustained release T max Time of the maximum observed concentration t l/2 Half-life Footnotes a. Hanselmann R, Mosley CI, Mosley CM, et

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Colorado State University pain and comfort scale HR Heart rate OTM Oral transmucosal RFA Recovery from anesthesia RR Respiratory rate SAP Systolic arterial blood pressure SR Sustained release VAS Visual analogue scale a. Wildlife

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ketamine has resulted in no change 26 to moderate increases 16 in IOP. To the authors’ knowledge, the effect of ketamine on IOP in sheep has never been investigated. The use of sustained-release analgesics that provide prolonged therapeutic plasma

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the nematocidal effectiveness of the ivermectin sustained-release bolus throughout its 135-day delivery period.

Design

Twenty-four naturally infected calves were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 equivalent experimental groups: group-T1 calves were untreated controls, group-T2 calves each received a sustained-release bolus on trial day 0, and group-T3 calves were rendered nematode-free and used at 35-day intervals during the study as tracers. One contaminated pasture was used for all principal calves for the 135-day grazing interval of the study. Calves of groups T1 and T2 were also artificially administered mixed infective nematode larvae at intervals during the grazing period, after which, all calves were confined to concrete for 21 days prior to necropsy.

Animals

All calves were approximately 6 months old on trial day 0, weighed from 136 to 216 kg, and were of mixed breeding and sex.

Procedure

At intervals during the study, feces from all calves were analyzed for nematode egg counts, and all calves were weighed and examined for bolus retention (T2 calves only). For nematode recovery, all calves were necropsied 21 to 22 days after removal from the contaminated pasture.

Results

Parasitic populations of Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Bunostomum, and Oesophagostomum spp were significantly reduced in cattle treated with the ivermectin sustained-release bolus.

Conclusion

The nematocidal activity of the ivermectin sustained-release bolus proved highly effective, with > 98% efficacy for all nematode species present.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Twelve calves (mean weight, 175.5 kg) were used to confirm efficacy of ivermectin delivered from a prototype sustained-release bolus against naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematodes including early fourth-stage (inhibited) larvae of Ostertagia ostertagi. The calves were allocated by restricted randomization on weight to 1 of 2 groups: controls, to which a placebo bolus was given orally, and treated calves, to which a sustained-release bolus designed to deliver 8 mg of ivermectin/day at a steady rate was given orally. After treatment, the 2 groups were housed in separate pens with concrete flooring. Twenty-eight days after treatment, all calves were euthanatized and necropsied. The ivermectin-treated calves had no larval or adult Ostertagia spp and significantly (P < 0.01) fewer adult Trichostrongylus axei and adult Cooperia (C oncophora, C punctata and C surnabada) than control calves. Efficacy of ivermectin was > 99% for Cooperia spp, and 100% for other parasites. Drug-related adverse reactions were not observed.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of an intravitreal sustained-release cyclosporine (CsA) delivery device for treatment of horses with naturally occurring recurrent uveitis.

Animals—16 horses with recurrent uveitis.

Procedures—Horses with frequent recurrent episodes of uveitis or with disease that was progressing despite appropriate medication were selected for this study. Additional inclusion criteria included adequate retinal function as determined by use of electroretinography, lack of severe cataract formation, and no vision-threatening ocular complications (eg, retinal detachment, severe retinal degeneration, and posterior synechia). Sustained-release CsA delivery devices (4 µg of CsA/d) were implanted into the vitreous through a sclerotomy at the pars plana. Reexaminations were performed 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation, then continued annually. Ophthalmic changes, number of recurrent episodes of uveitis, and vision were recorded.

Results—The rate of recurrent episodes after device implantation (0.36 episodes/y) was less than prior to surgery (7.5 episodes/y). In addition, only 3 horses developed episodes of recurrent uveitis after surgery. Vision was detected in 14 of 16 affected eyes at a mean follow-up time of 13.8 months (range, 6 to 24 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This intravitreal sustained-release CsA delivery device may be a safe and important tool for long-term treatment of horses with chronic recurrent uveitis. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1892–1896)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Enrofloxacin was encapsulated in multilamellar liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (molar ratio, 1:1), and its potential use as sustained release formulation was evaluated. The encapsulated drug was administered im to rabbits (n = 6). Results indicated that absorption rate was slow, compared with previous studies; additionally, peak concentration was lower (0.5 ± 0.1 µg/ml), and the time to peak concentration was considerably longer for liposome-encapsulated enrofloxacin (1.5 ± 1.08 hours) than for unencapsulated drug. Apparent elimination half-life of drug in the body was significantly (P < 0.05) increased (4.05 ± 1.08 hours) when it was administered encapsulated in liposomes. Large-size liposomes containing enrofloxacin administered im to rabbits gave sustained drug release from the injection site, providing therapeutic and prolonged plasma concentrations of drug in the body.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research