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at these dose ranges. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (VAST) subcommittee approved methods and breakpoints for testing the susceptibility of bacterial isolates from dogs to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

focuses of attention in veterinary medicine. 6 – 10 Selection of antimicrobial treatment on the basis of bacterial culture and susceptibility test results is considered the standard of care for dogs with retrobulbar abscesses. 1 Sample collection

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. All bacteria were maintained as frozen stabilates at −80 °C until shipped for antimicrobial susceptibility testing at the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, also an AAVLD-accredited laboratory. All susceptibility testing was performed

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

disappointing and the use of susceptibility testing for antimicrobial selection can be challenged. 3,4 Even when breakpoints are soundly determined, the predictive value of AST for clinical resistance is rather low, as recently reviewed for human medicine, 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, intermediate, or resistant) of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility tests. 6 The objective of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to perform a standardized test that will consistently predict the expected therapeutic outcome. Results of in vitro

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

susceptibility testing results with results for noncatheterized dogs with UTIs. We hypothesized that dogs with IVDD managed with indwelling urinary catheters are not more likely to develop UTIs than are dogs managed with indwelling urinary catheters for other

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, 4 Veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) across the country routinely perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) on a wide array of samples, and some perform whole genome sequencing (WGS) of pathogens. Several projects currently aggregate

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Abstract

Objective—To describe antimicrobial susceptibility testing practices of veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States and evaluate the feasibility of collating this information for the purpose of monitoring antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from animals.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Procedures—A questionnaire was mailed to veterinary diagnostic laboratories throughout the United States to identify those laboratories that conduct susceptibility testing. Nonrespondent laboratories were followed up through telephone contact and additional mailings. Data were gathered regarding methods of susceptibility testing, standardization of methods, data management, and types of isolates tested.

Results—Eighty-six of 113 (76%) laboratories responded to the survey, and 64 of the 86 (74%) routinely performed susceptibility testing on bacterial isolates from animals. Thirty-four of the 36 (94%) laboratories accredited by the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians responded to the survey. Laboratories reported testing > 160,000 bacterial isolates/y. Fifty-one (88%) laboratories reported using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility; this accounted for 65% of the isolates tested. Most (87%) laboratories used the NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) documents for test interpretation. Seventy-five percent of the laboratories performed susceptibility testing on bacterial isolates only when they were potential pathogens.

Conclusions—The veterinary diagnostic laboratories represent a comprehensive source of data that is not easily accessible in the United States. Variability in testing methods and data storage would present challenges for data aggregation, summary, and interpretation. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:168–173)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens isolated from the milk of dairy cows with clinical mastitis were associated with duration of clinical signs or bacteriologic cure rate following treatment with cephapirin and oxytetracycline.

Design—Observational study on a convenience sample.

Animals—58 dairy cows with 121 episodes of clinical mastitis.

Procedure—Cows that only had abnormal glandular secretions were treated with cephapirin alone. Cows with an inflamed gland and abnormal glandular secretions were treated with oxytetracycline and cephapirin. Cows with systemic signs of illness, an inflamed gland, and abnormal glandular secretions were treated with oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine and frequent stripping of the affected glands. The Kirby-Bauer method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and current guidelines were used to categorize causative bacteria as susceptible or resistant to the treatment regimen.

Results—Median durations of episodes of clinical mastitis caused by susceptible (n = 97) and resistant (24) bacteria were not significantly different. Bacteriologic cure rates at 14 and 28 days were similar for episodes caused by susceptible and resistant bacteria; however, for 56 episodes of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria and treated with cephapirin alone, bacteriologic cure rate at 28 days was significantly higher for susceptible than for resistant bacteria.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that antimicrobial susceptibility testing was of no value in predicting duration of clinical signs or bacteriologic cure rate in dairy cows with mastitis, except for episodes caused by gram-positive organisms treated with intramammary administration of cephapirin alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:103–108)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

susceptibility testing of E coli continues to be the reference (gold) standard for the detection of antimicrobial resistance, this technique is laborious and time-consuming, requiring 2 to 5 days from the point of specimen collection to the point results are

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research