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, which was suspected to be a sequela of damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve that was sustained during surgical ligation of the PDA. The intermittent clinical signs of laryngeal dysfunction were not considered severe enough to warrant surgical

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

occlusion with devices such as CDOs, vascular plugs, or embolization coils implanted via an arterial or venous approach. 3–5 Surgical ligation techniques include standard dissection and circumferential ligation, application of hemoclips, 6 oversewing the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

thickness. L = Left. Treatment and Outcome The patient was managed with medical and surgical treatment. Oral pimobendan was initiated preoperatively for inotropic support at 0.25 mg/kg, twice daily, 3 weeks prior surgical ligation of the shunt. A

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-term outcome, and long-term prognosis and have reported a 1-year survival rate of 94%. 3 , 5 – 8 While there is conflicting literature in terms of prognostic variables for dogs undergoing surgical ligation for a PDA, these retrospective studies span over 4

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

via extravascular (surgical ligation) or intravascular (catheter-delivered devices designed to stimulate thrombosis) occlusion. Historically, open surgical attenuation was the treatment of choice; however, catheter-based methods for vascular occlusion

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

right forelimb. A vascular structure thought to be the cephalic vein ended abruptly in the proximal region of the antebrachium at the site of the surgical ligation. Venous return appeared to occur predominantly through the median and brachial veins

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—2 horses were examined because of vascular masses involving the lower eyelid.

Clinical Findings—Both horses had a unilateral, fluctuant mass involving the lower eyelid. For horse 1, the mass had been present since birth and had slowly increased in size over time. The mass also changed in size in response to various environmental stimuli, alterations in the position of the horse's head, and digital obstruction of superficial vessels adjacent to the mass. Horse 2 was brought to the hospital for euthanasia, and no historical or antemor-tem data were available. A combination of contrast angiography, Doppler ultrasonography, surgical exploration, and blood gas analysis (horse 1) and postmortem and histologic examination (horse 2) were used to determine that the masses consisted of non-neoplastic distended venous channels with anastomoses to the inferior lateral palpebral and angularis oculi veins (both horses) as well as the facial vein (horse 2). Histologic examination (horse 2) revealed large, endothelial cell-lined, blood-filled spaces within the deep dermis consistent with a distensible superficial venous orbital malformation.

Treatment and Outcome—Horse 1 underwent surgical exploration and ligation of the vascular malformation. Six months after surgery, the mass was markedly reduced in size, and size of the mass was static regardless of head position or environmental stimuli.

Clinical Relevance—Thorough preoperative planning with Doppler ultrasonography, contrast angiography, and blood gas analysis is recommended when attempting surgical correction of these malformations in horses. Surgical ligation can result in a successful cosmetic and functional outcome.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Alterations in serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in ponies with experimentally induced liver disease were investigated. Hepatocellular damage was induced, using a nonlethal dose of carbon tetrachloride. In a separate group of ponies, obstructive jaundice was induced by surgical ligation of the common bile duct. Over a 6-day period, blood samples were obtained from ponies after treatment with carbon tetrachloride and for 12 days in ponies subjected to surgery. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were unaffected in both groups of ponies, except for significantly (P < 0.01) high triglyceride concentration in ponies of the ligated group during the second postsurgical week. This increase was most likely attributable to anorexia observed during that period. Hyperbilirubinemia was observed early in ponies of the ligated group; most of the bilirubin was of the conjugated type. Using electrophoretic and ultracentrifugal methods, serum lipoprotein alterations were detected only in ponies of the ligated group. Increases of very low-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration were found. Although no changes were seen in total serum cholesterol concentration, a redistribution of lipoprotein cholesterol was observed in ponies of the ligated group. Similar alterations in lipoprotein distribution have been found in dogs, rats, and human beings with obstructive jaundice and cholestasis. The association between serum lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase activities and these lipoprotein alterations remains to be elucidated.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether extent of collateral circulation would change during temporary occlusion of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in ferrets (Mustela putorius), a pressure change would occur caudal to the occlusion, and differences would exist between the sexes with respect to those changes.

ANIMALS 8 adult ferrets (4 castrated males and 4 spayed females).

PROCEDURES Ferrets were anesthetized. A balloon occlusion catheter was introduced through a jugular vein, passed into the CVC by use of fluoroscopy, positioned cranial to the right renal vein, and inflated for 20 minutes. Venography was performed 5 and 15 minutes after occlusion. Pressure in the CVC caudal to the occlusion was measured continuously. A CBC, plasma biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were performed immediately after the procedure and 2 or 3 days later.

RESULTS All 8 ferrets survived the procedure; no differences were apparent between the sexes. Vessels providing collateral circulation were identified in all ferrets, indicating blood flow to the paravertebral venous plexus. Complications observed prior to occlusion included atrial and ventricular premature contractions. Complications after occlusion included bradycardia, seizures, and extravasation of contrast medium. Mean baseline CVC pressure was 5.4 cm H2O. During occlusion, 6 ferrets had a moderate increase in CVC pressure (mean, 24.3 cm H2O) and 2 ferrets had a marked increase in CVC pressure to > 55.0 cm H2O.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caval occlusion for 20 minutes was performed in healthy ferrets with minimal adverse effects noted within the follow-up period and no apparent differences between sexes. The CVC pressure during occlusion may be prognostic in ferrets undergoing surgical ligation of the CVC, which commonly occurs during adrenal tumor resection.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine complimentary DNA (cDNA) sequence and tissue distribution of canine brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and to investigate whether synthesis of canine BNP increases in association with cardiovascular dysfunction.

Animals

5 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs and 3 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedure

Total RNA was extracted from normal canine hearts and was used in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure to isolate canine BNP cDNA. Sequence of the isolated cDNA was analyzed. Gene expression of canine BNP in various tissues from 2 mixed-breed dogs was investigated, using RT-PCR and northern blot analyses. Moreover, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of canine BNP, using northern blot analysis, was compared between grossly normal hearts from 3 Beagles and hearts from 3 mixed-breed dogs with acute myocardial infarction created by surgical ligation.

Results

The cDNA sequence and deduced amino acid residues of canine BNP precursor were 420 base pairs and 140 residues, respectively. Messenger RNA expression of canine BNP was detectable in the atria but not in the ventricles and the other tissues. Messenger RNA expression of canine BNP was, however, detectable in the infarcted portion of the ventricles. The amount of canine BNP mRNA in the infarcted ventricles was significantly increased, compared with that of noninfarcted ventricles.

Conclusion

The cDNA sequence of canine BNP was determined. Expression of canine BNP mRNA was detected not only in the atria but also in infarcted ventricles. Synthesis of canine BNP increases in association with ischemic myocardial injury. Canine BNP may be used as an indicator of severity of ventricular myocardial injury. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:860–864)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research