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but also causes prolonged motor blockade, which can lead to recumbency for up to 6 hours. This prolonged recumbency can lead to ruminal tympany, gastrointestinal stasis, nerve or muscle injury, and loss of production. 1 , 5 Subarachnoid injection of

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ventral subarachnoid spaces of the cervical spine ( Figure 2 ). Figure 2— Sagittal T2-weighted (A) and postcontrast Tl-weighted (B) MRI images of the same dog as in Figure 1 , obtained approximately 1 month after dorsal rhinotomy was performed. A

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

weighed approximately 20 kg. Dogs were assessed as clinically normal on the basis of results of physical and neurologic examinations, CBCs, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and assessment of buccal mucosal bleeding times. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hyperesthesia. It has been suggested that the subclinical periods correspond with a decrease in neutrophil migration into the subarachnoid space. 12 This could explain the findings for the dogs of the present study in which the TNCC was only slightly high in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seven adult mares were used to determine the analgesic, cns, and cardiopulmonary effects of detomidine hydrochloride solution after epidural or subarachnoid administration, using both regimens in random sequence. At least 1 week elapsed between experiments.

A 17-gauge Huber point (Tuohy) directional needle was used to place a catheter with stylet into either the epidural space at the first coccygeal interspace or the subarachnoid space at the lumbosacral intervertebral junction. Catheters were advanced so that the tips lay at the caudal sacral (S5 to S4) epidural space or at the midsacral (S3 to S2) subarachnoid space. Position of the catheter was confirmed radiographically. A 1% solution of detomidine HCl was injected into the epidural catheter at a dosage of 60 µg/kg of body weight, and was expanded to a 10-ml volume with sterile water to induce selective caudal epidural analgesia (cea). A dose of 30 µg of detomidine HCl/kg expanded to a 3-ml volume with spinal fluid was injected into the subarachnoid catheter to induce caudal subarachnoid analgesia (csa). Analgesia was determined by lack of sensory perception to electrical stimulation (avoidance threshold > 40 V, 0.5-ms duration) at the perineal dermatomes and no response to superficial and deep muscular pinprick stimulation at the pelvic limb and lumbar and thoracic dermatomes. Maximal cea and csa extended from the coccyx to spinal cord segments T15 and T14 at 10 to 25 minutes after epidural and subarachnoid drug administrations in 2 mares. Analgesia at the perineal area lasted longer after epidural than after subarachnoid administration (142.8 ± 28.8 minutes vs 127.1 ± 27.7 minutes). All mares remained standing. Both cea and csa induced marked sedation, moderate ataxia, minimal cardiopulmonary depression, increased frequency of second-degree atrioventricular heart block, and renal diuresis. All treatments resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) decreased heart rate, respiratory rate, systemic arterial blood pressure, pcv, and plasma total solids concentration. To the contrary, arterial carbon dioxide tension, plasma bicarbonate, and standard base excess concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Arterial oxygen tension, pH, and rectal temperature did not change significantly from baseline values.

Results indicate that use of detomidine for cea and csa in mares probably induces local spinal and cns effects, marked sedation, moderate ataxia, mild cardiopulmonary depression, and renal diuresis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, and lidocaine hydrochloride after subarachnoid administration in goats.

Animals—6 healthy goats.

Procedure—In each goat, ketamine (3 mg/kg), xylazine (0.1 mg/kg), lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg), and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were injected into the subarachnoid space between the last lumbar vertebra and first sacral vertebra (time 0). Analgesic, ataxic, sedative, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects and rectal temperature were evaluated before (baseline) and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after administration and at 30-minute intervals thereafter as needed.

Results—Administration of anesthetics induced varying degrees of analgesia. Onset of the analgesic effect was more delayed for xylazine (mean ± SD, 9.5 ± 2.6 minutes) than for ketamine (6.7 ± 2.6 minutes) or lidocaine (3.5 ± 1.2 minutes). Duration of analgesia induced by xylazine (88.3 ± 15 minutes) was twice as long as the duration of analgesia induced by ketamine (48.8 ± 13.5 minutes) but similar to that induced by lidocaine (66.5 ± 31 minutes). Xylazine induced bradycardia, whereas ketamine caused a nonsignificant increase in heart rate. Xylazine induced a reduction in arterial pressure, whereas ketamine or lidocaine did not affect arterial pressure.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Subarachnoid administration of xylazine in goats resulted in longer duration of analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flanks, and caudodorsal rib areas than administration of ketamine or lidocaine. However, xylazine caused bradycardia and respiratory depression. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the analgesia would be sufficient to allow clinicians to perform surgical procedures. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:51–56)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Neuraxial administration of local anesthetic results in sympathetic block, sensory analgesia, and motor block. Subarachnoid administration of an anesthetic requires a small mass or volume of drug, compared with epidural administration of an

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ventricles of the brain ( Figures 2 and 3 ) and compression of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Air was also observed within the cranial cervical subarachnoid space ( Figure 4 ). Rostrally, air within the fourth ventricle had caused substantial compression of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Thoroughbred foals, and the quotient of the area of the cervical spinal cord divided by the area of the subarachnoid space plus the cervical spinal cord was used to quantify the degree of spinal cord compression and compare with histo-logic examination findings

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Transverse and sagittal T2-weighted images were used to evaluate dogs for compression of the subarachnoid space, spinal cord, or both. The main site and any additional sites of compression were recorded. Each intervertebral space was graded as previously

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association