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The stifle joint is the largest and the most complex of all the articulations in a horse and is composed of 2 joints: the femoropatellar and the femorotibial joints. 1 The femorotibial joint is subdivided into lateral femorotibial and medial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The stifle joint is an important source of lameness in all types of horses. 1,2 Because of its clinical importance, anatomically normal stifle joints and stifle joints with pathological changes have been studied extensively via radiography 3

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the affected stifle joint, an increase in joint effusion, a slight increase in total cell numbers in the SF, and joint stiffness. 17,18 Tearing of the CrCL could initiate an inflammatory process with the production of inflammatory cytokines

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

determine the quantity (concentration) and quality (molecular weight) of synovial fluid hyaluronan with respect to presence and severity of osteoarthritis in stifle joints of dogs. We hypothesized that synovial fluid hyaluronan quantity and quality would be

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Degeneration and rupture of the CrCL lead to instability of the stifle joint in dogs. 1–3 The CrCL limits hyperextension of the stifle joint as well as internal rotation and cranial displacement of the tibia relative to the femur. 2 Rupture of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Degeneration and ultimate rupture of the canine CrCL leads to stifle joint instability because the CrCL limits hyperextension, internal rotation, and cranial translation of the tibia relative to the femur. 1–3 Rupture of the CrCL often is the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Deficiency of the CrCL is the leading orthopedic condition diagnosed in canine stifle joints, 1 with a prevalence of 2.55% across all breeds 2 and an economic impact in the United States exceeding $1.3 billion in 2003. 3 The CrCL stabilizes the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

results in clinical signs similar to those detected in humans with this problem. Costs associated with CCL disease and associated stifle joint osteoarthritis in dogs are estimated to be billions of dollars annually for pet owners. 2 Results of studies

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The stifle joint is a common site of pain resulting in hind limb lameness among horses of many breeds and athletic disciplines. 1,2 The equine stifle joint is complex and comprises 3 synovial joint compartments: the femoropatellar joint, medial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

goniometers (2 smartphone-based applications and a novel digital goniometer) for angle measurements of the stifle joint in dogs and compare the results with those obtained by use of a UG, with radiographic measurements used as the gold standard. We

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research