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). 2 , 3 , 6 , 7 In patients refractory/unresponsive to medical treatment or with severe (grade IV) TC, surgical treatment or placement of an intraluminal stent should be attempted. 2 , 3 , 8 Common surgical options include using extraluminal ring

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

complications, such as laryngeal paralysis and tracheal necrosis 4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 Intraluminal stents have provided a promising alternative treatment when addressing collapse of the intrathoracic portion of the trachea and surgically inaccessible

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, ureteral stent placement, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, and laparoscopy have made minimally invasive management the treatment of choice when dealing with ureterolithiasis. 7–11 Ureteral stents and UB devices are an integral part of human urological

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

following surgery is reportedly 904 days, whereas in cats the 12-month survival rate is 91%. 2,3 To date, ureteral stent placement has been used as a palliative treatment for ureteral obstruction in children and veterinary species. Double-pigtail ureteral

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

development of novel techniques to palliate the clinical signs associated with local disease. Stents have been sutured across malignant obstructions to maintain urethral patency with good results; however, use of that technique still requires surgery, and in 1

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Measurements for possible stent placement were obtained from the fluoroscopic images by use of digital calipers. The narrowed region measured 10 mm in length, with a 3-mm luminal diameter at the narrowest point. The urethral lumen immediately proximal and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Indwelling ureteral stents have been routinely placed in human patients with a variety of disorders to maintain urine flow from the renal pelvis into the urinary bladder. 1–11 Ureteral stents were first placed with an open surgical approach in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

are medically unstable. 1–5 Surgical options include the use of extraluminal ring prosthetics or endoluminal stents to reestablish the airway. 6–14 Although use of either device can provide an improvement in respiratory function, tracheal stents are

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

An 8-year-old 23.4-kg (51.5-lb) spayed female Dalmatian was examined because of recurrent urinary tract infections. Three years earlier, a double-pigtailed stent had been placed in the dog's right ureter because of obstruction and a ureteral tear

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

management of obstruction of the urethra include urethral stent placement, cystostomy tube placement, surgical diversion, and ultrasound-guided cystoscopic laser ablation. In many cases, owners elect euthanasia. 2,4 The use of long-term cystostomy tubes is

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association