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reduce patient morbidity and mortality. 1 Spherocytosis can be seen in numerous conditions including immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), 2 posttransfusion, 3 envenomations (viper bite 4 , 5 and honeybee 5 ), acetaminophen 6 and zinc 7

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

isotype, detected via DIF-FC, with the development of hematologic markers, such as autoagglutination or spherocytosis, and outcome in dogs with IMHA. The purpose of the study reported here was to retrospectively evaluate the results of DIF-FC in dogs with

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To examine clinical features, laboratory test results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—13 dogs with severe nonregenerative anemia and bone marrow erythroid aplasia.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs determined to have PRCA on the basis of results of blood and bone marrow analysis between 1996 and 2000 were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion in the study were severe nonregenerative anemia (Hct < 20%; reticulocyte count < 1.0%), selective erythroid aplasia in bone marrow, and lack of underlying diseases that may have caused the anemia.

Results—Median age of dogs was 6.5 years. Females were significantly overrepresented. Median Hct was 10%, and median reticulocyte count was 0.1%. Direct Coombs' test results were negative for all dogs tested, and spherocytosis was evident in 2 dogs. All dogs were treated with prednisolone, and 2 dogs were treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Responses to treatment were complete, partial, and poor in 10, 1, and 2 dogs, respectively. Median time required to achieve an increase of 5% or more in Hct was 38 days, and median time to complete remission was 118 days. Of 10 dogs for which follow-up information was available, only 1 required long-term immunosuppressive treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with PRCA appear to respond readily to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs; however, hematologic responses may not be observed for weeks to months after initiation of treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:93–95)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Forty-two cases of Coombs' positive or agglutinating immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (imha) in dogs were reviewed. Dogs ranged in age from 1 to 13 years, with a mean age of 6.4 ± 3.4 years. The majority of dogs (74%) tested positive for IgG antibodies without complement. Spherocytosis was seen in 67% of the dogs, but hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria were found in only 10%. Marked bilirubinuria was found in all the dogs. A significant seasonal incidence was observed, with 40% of all cases diagnosed during the months of May and fune. Severe anemia, with pcv ≤ 20% was observed in 37 dogs (88%). Sixteen dogs (38%) had moderate to severe reticulocytosis and 12 dogs (29%) had mild reticulocytosis. Thus, the absence of reticulocytosis should not be used to rule out a diagnosis of imha. Concomitant mild to severe thrombocytopenia was observed in 28 dogs (67%). A mortality of 29% was observed during hospitalization. Risk of death was significantly increased in dogs without marked reticulocytosis, those with lower pcv, and dogs with serum bilirubin concentrations ≥ 10 mg/dl. In severe cases of imha, rapid and aggressive supportive therapy is required.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous administration of human immune globulin in the treatment of dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA).

Design—

Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—

10 dogs with confirmed primary IMHA that had failed to respond to conventional immunosuppressive treatment (administration of prednisone and cyclophosphamide or azathioprine).

Procedure—

Diagnosis of IMHA was confirmed by detecting spherocytosis or autoagglutination in blood smears and by excluding secondary causes of IMHA. Dogs were treated with human immune globulin (1 g/kg (0.45 glib] of body weight. IV) during a 6- to 12-hour period. Prednisone treatment was continued in all dogs, and cyclophosphamide treatment was continued in 4.

Results—

Median duration of prior immunosuppressive treatment was 12.5 days. Short-term response could not be evaluated in 2 dogs, because they were given blood transfusions within 7 days after immune globulin treatment. However, there was a significant increase in mean Hct and hemoglobin concentration in 8 other dogs from day 0 to 28 after treatment. Five dogs had clinically meaningful responses to treatment. Three dogs were alive 12 months after treatment. There were not any adverse effects that could be definitively attributed to immune globulin treatment; however, thrombocytopenia was observed in 6 dogs after treatment, and evidence of thromboembolism was detected at necropsy in 5 of the 7 dogs that died.

Clinical Implications—

Human immune globulin may be useful for Short-term stabilization of some dogs with IMHA; however, it did not appear to improve long-term survival. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1623–1627)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

erythrocytes, particularly IgG and IgM, are likely to have a more severe degree of anemia, spherocytosis, and autoagglutination. The Hct on admission was significantly lower in dogs with IgG and IgM isotypes bound to erythrocytes, compared with values for dogs

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

regenerative anemia, and plasma with evidence of hemolysis and icterus, as well as observation of spherocytosis, anisocytosis, polychromasia, and ghost cells in blood smears, all constituted findings compatible with a diagnosis of intravascular IMHA. 7 For

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

inclusion, provided they had not received anticoagulant or immunosuppressive treatment or blood products. A diagnosis of IMHA was made on the basis of the presence of anemia (Hct < 26%) and evidence of either or both autoagglutination and spherocytosis as

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

study had spherocytosis, and spherocytosis was considered to be mild in all of those instances. Spherocytes have been detected in association with zinc-induced hemolysis in dogs, but similar to findings in the dogs of our study, this has been an

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

examination ( Table 1 ) revealed various abnormalities including anemia with moderate spherocytosis and polychromasia, and autoagglutination (positive result of a saline dilution test [1:10 dilution]). A manual platelet estimate did not reveal thrombocytopenia

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association