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spectrum of care can also support decision-making concerning specialty referral. The decision to manage a case in-house or to recommend referral will always be contextual and must be made by each clinician for each patient and client individually. Rigid

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

employ a veterinary behaviorist. a Behavior problems are a primary reason for dog relinquishment and, ultimately, the cause of death for most animals euthanized annually in shelters, 1–5 yet few specialty referral hospitals offer veterinary behavior

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

temperature, 37.5 to 39.1 °C) at the time of presentation to an emergency and specialty referral hospital between May 2020 and March 2021. Patients were excluded from the study if they were hypothermic (rectal temperature, < 37.5 °C) or hyperthermic (rectal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, carcinogenic, and teratogenic risks associated with handling chemotherapeutics; caseload (the number of cancer patients encountered); and the availability of specialty referral services. The difference gives rise to important questions, such as why more Ontario

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The medical records of 7 hypercalcemic cats with primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated. Mean age was 12.9 years, with ages ranging from 8 to 15 years; 5 were female; 5 were Siamese, and 2 were of mixed breed. The most common clinical signs detected by owners were anorexia and lethargy. A cervical mass was palpable in 4 cats. Serum calcium concentrations were 11.1 to 22.8 mg/dl, with a mean of 15.8 mg/dl calculated from each cat's highest preoperative value. The serum phosphorus concentration was low in 2 cats, within reference limits in 4, and slightly high in 1 cat. The bun concentration was > 60 mg/dl in 2 cats, 31 to 35 mg/dl in 2 cats, and < 30 mg/dl in 3 cats. Abnormalities were detected in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities from 2 or 3 cats. Parathormone (pth) concentrations were measured in 2 cats before and after surgery. The preoperative pth concentration was within reference limits in 1 cat and was high in 1 cat. The pth concentrations were lower after surgery in both cats tested. A solitary parathyroid adenoma was surgically removed from 5 cats, bilateral parathyroid cystadenomas were surgically resected in 1 cat, and a parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed at necropsy in 1 cat. None of the cats had clinical problems with hypocalcemia after surgery, although 2 cats developed hypocalcemia without tetany, one of which was controlled with oral administration of dihydrotachysterol and the other with oral administration of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D. All 5 of the cats that underwent removal of an adenoma were alive at least 240 days after surgery. Four of these 5 cats were normocalcemic at the last examination. The cat that had bilateral cystadenomas was lost to follow-up evaluation 110 days after surgery. One of the cats with a parathyroid adenoma was reevaluated 569 days after the first surgery. It was found to be hypercalcemic (21.5 mg/dl), subsequently died, and was identified as having a parathyroid adenoma and a parathyroid carcinoma on histologic evaluation of tissue removed from the neck at necropsy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify demographic and employment variables associated with an associate veterinarian’s intent to remain at their organization in the next 5 years and to assess the impact of positive leadership in the practice and on veterinarians’ well-being.

SAMPLE

2,037 associate veterinarians in private practice who participated in the 2021 and 2022 AVMA Census of Veterinarians surveys.

PROCEDURES

Associate veterinarian demographic and employment information was used in regression analysis to determine the likelihood of remaining employed at their organization in the next 5 years and the impact leadership has on an associate veterinarian’s employment.

RESULTS

Higher levels of burnout, living in an urban community, and working in corporate practice were associated with lower odds of remaining in the next 5 years. Associates who worked in a practice in which they believed their leaders practiced positive leadership had higher odds of remaining in the next 5 years. An increase in a practice’s leadership index was associated with a likelihood to remain employed over the next 5 years. Decreases in the leadership index were associated with higher burnout levels among associates, more work experience, working more hours, and specialty/referral practices.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings supported anecdotal evidence that lack of positive leadership in a private practice may lead to higher odds of retention issues in a practice, as well as lower job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and workplace well-being among associates. Positive leadership practices might provide protective factors to critical veterinary business outcomes like team member retention and engagement.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Recruiting clients to a referral center I found the recent report by Drs. Herron and Lord 1 regarding use of a clinical behavior service at a companion animal specialty referral practice to be problematic, in that the authors' findings could

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. See page 1453 Use of and satisfaction with a clinical behavior service in a companion animal specialty referral practice The availability of veterinary behavior services may result in recruitment of clients to a specialty referral center

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

include veterinary clinics located in pet stores, mobile vaccination clinics, veterinary services provided by animal shelters and rescue operations, and specialty referral practices. In the online survey of pet owners, 13% indicated that they did not

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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specialty referral practice . J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012 ; 241 : 1463 – 1466 . 10.2460/javma.241.11.1463 7. Houpt KA . Animal behavior as a subject for veterinary students . Cornell Vet 1976 ; 66 : 73 – 81 . 8. Beaver BV . The role of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association