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Urolithiasis is the formation of calculi (“stones”) or concretions of mucus, protein, and minerals in the urinary tract. It is the most common cause of urinary tract disease in small ruminants. 1 Although presentation to veterinary services is

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In the FARAD Digest article “Drugs approved for small ruminants” published in the February 15, 2004, issue ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:520–523), the units for milk withdrawal intervals following administration of ivermectin in goats in Table 4

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction Obstructive urolithiasis is a commonly encountered emergency condition of small ruminants. 1 Treatment outcome is unpredictable, and temporary tube cystostomy under general anesthesia is prohibitively expensive and unavailable in

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

In the present FARAD Digest, common medications used to treat small ruminants in the United States and FARAD-recommended WDIs following ELDU in small ruminants will be reviewed. For this digest, we use the term small ruminants to refer only to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

livestock industry. In terms of production, Pakistan added approximately 1 million tons of milk, 0.47 million tons of wool, 0.75 million tons of meat, 0.29 million tons of hair, and 59.5 million pounds of small ruminant skin to its total gross domestic

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, as anticonvulsants are of clinical relevance in small ruminants. Acknowledgments None reported. Disclosures The authors have nothing to disclose. No AI-assisted technologies were used in the generation of this manuscript

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To establish immortalized caprine fibroblastic cell lines permissive for replication of small ruminant lentiviruses.

Animals

Carpal synovial membrane explants collected aseptically from a surgically delivered fetus of a lentivirus-seronegative goat.

Procedure

Immortalization of goat embryonic fibroblasts was performed by DNA transfection with plasmids coding for simian virus 40 large T antigen. The generated cell lines were phenotypically characterized. Cytogenetics, growth pattern, and sensitivity to viral infection were studied.

Results

3 cell lines, designated TIGEF, mMTSV-54, and mMTSV-93, were generated. They had a more rapid doubling time than did fibroblasts from which they were derived, and retained morphologic and phenotypic fibroblastic characteristics. They were immortalized but not transformed because tumor formation was not promoted after their SC injection into athymic nude mice. The 3 cell lines were susceptible to caprine arthritisencephalitis virus and visna-maedi virus infections, and supported a complete virus replication cycle.

Conclusions

Cultured caprine fibroblastic cells were immortalized, using simian virus 40 large T antigen. The TIGEF, mMTSV-54, and mMTSV-93 immortalized cell lines were permissive to in vitro small ruminant lentivirus replication.

Clinical Relevance

Because lentivirus detection, as well as detailed studies of host-lentivirus interactions, are hampered by differences in viral susceptibility of each primary culture, permanent cell lines are essential tools for such analysis. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:579–584)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Supply chain issues disrupt veterinary care and cause downstream consequences that alter the practice of veterinary medicine. Antimicrobials are just 1 class of pharmaceuticals that have been impacted by supply chain issues over the last couple of years. Since February 2021, 2 sponsors/manufacturers of penicillin products have reported shortages in the active pharmaceutical ingredient. With the release of the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals by the FDA, a key finding was a 19% decrease in penicillin sales and distribution from 2020 to 2021. Herein, we provide our clinicians’ professional perspective regarding how drug shortages, specifically that of penicillin, might contribute to misconstrued patterns in antimicrobial use and what can be done by veterinarians and the FDA to minimize the impact of an antimicrobial drug shortage on animal health and well-being.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association