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conditions, and consumption in certain disease states. 9 Serum amyloid A, a major APP in horses, is present in very low or undetectable concentrations in healthy horses, can increase > 100-fold within 6 to 12 hours following inflammatory stimuli, and has a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Serum amyloid A is an acute-phase protein that is synthesized primarily in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. The protein has been highly conserved throughout evolution and is thought to play important roles in modulation of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

healthy individuals; for these APPs, there may be only a 1- to 10-fold increase in concentration during an APR. To date, SAA has been the major APP identified in horses. 5,6 Serum amyloid A has garnered attention as a reliable indicator of inflammation

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

immunodiffusion kit d as described previously. 8,17,19 Serum amyloid A concentration was measured with a multispecies solid-phase sandwich immunoassay kit e as described previously. 18,19 All samples were processed in duplicate. Statistical analysis

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

–3 but their role in such disease processes has yet to be elucidated. Serum amyloid A is classified as a major acute phase protein in all species investigated so far (with the exception of rats) because its serum concentrations increase several hundred

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

present at admission. Measurement of SAA and haptoglobin concentrations Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations were measured with an automated chemistry analyzer b by use of commercially available assays e,f previously validated for use

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

APP Acute-phase protein SAA Serum amyloid A CRP C-reactive protein TNF Tumor necrosis factor IL Interleukin CSF Classical swine fever ASF African swine fever a. Gómez-Villamandos JC, Mekonnen T, Salguero F, et al

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Concentration of the acute-phase protein serum amyloid-A (saa) was measured by means of an indirect ELISA method, in plasma of 3 pregnant cows and in plasma taken by cannula from another 4 pregnant cows and, by separate cannula, from their fetuses. Blood samples were taken daily from approximately 72 hours before until 72 hours after parturition. After parturition, saa concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05) in maternal plasma. In fetal plasma, only a nonsignificant increase was found at time of delivery. The concentration of maternal saa started to increase within the first 24 hours after delivery, reaching a peak value between 24 and 48 hours after delivery.

In the aforementioned plasma samples from the 4 pregnant cows and their fetuses, the concentration of maternally derived cortisol increased nonsignificantly after parturition. The concentration of fetally derived cortisol was significantly (P< 0.05) increased at parturition (t = 0), compared with the initial fetal cortisol concentration at 120 hours before delivery.

Peripartum concentration of maternal saa increased and maternal cortisol remained low, whereas fetal saa concentration remained low and fetal cortisol concentration increased. These findings indicate possible suppressive action of fetal cortisol on fetal saa production. However, it might be argued that the main cause of the difference in saa concentration is the difference in tissue damage between cows and fetuses at parturition.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of 2 acute-phase proteins (serum amyloid A [SAA] and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein [LBP]) in serum samples obtained from horses with colic and identify relationships among these acute-phase proteins and clinical data.

Animals—765 horses with naturally developing gastrointestinal tract diseases characterized by colic (ie, clinical signs indicative of abdominal pain) and 79 healthy control horses; all horses were examined at 2 university teaching hospitals.

Procedure—Serum concentrations of SAA and LBP were determined by immunoturbidometric and dotblot assays, respectively.

Results—SAA and LBP concentrations were determined for 718 and 765 horses with colic, respectively. Concentrations of SAA were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors, and horses with enteritis or colitis and conditions characterized by chronic inflammation (eg, abdominal abscesses, peritonitis, or rectal tears) had SAA concentrations significantly greater than those for horses with other conditions. Serum concentrations of LBP did not correlate with outcome, disease process, or portion of the gastrointestinal tract affected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Circulating concentrations of SAA were significantly higher at admission in horses with colic attributable to conditions having a primary inflammatory cause (eg, enteritis, colitis, peritonitis, or abdominal abscesses) and were higher in horses that failed to survive the episode of colic, compared with concentrations in horses that survived. Serum concentrations of LBP did not correlate with survival. Analysis of these findings suggests that evaluation of SAA concentrations may be of use in identifying horses with colic attributable to diseases that have inflammation as a primary component of pathogenesis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1509–1516)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

To measure the concentration of serum amyloid A (saa) protein in horses, a sensitive and highly reproducible sandwich (elisa) was established, using affinity purified saa antibody. Results of the elisa were found to have a high correlation (r = 0.95) with those of the single radial immunodiffusion test. Equine saa concentration was measured by use of this elisa. In clinically normal horses, the concentration of saa was high immediately after birth to 2 weeks of age. After that, saa concentration had periodic fluctuations in the range of approximately 10 to 30 μg/ml. Mean (± sd) concentrations of saa in foals (≤ 12 months old) and adult horses (≥ 18 months old) were 21.23 ± 12.20 and 14.93 ± 9.07 μg/ml, respectively. In mares during the perinatal period, saa concentration remained stable within the reference range before parturition. It increased quickly after delivery, and reached a peak value of 101.29 ± 98.82 μg/ml on postpartum day 3, then began to decrease, at postpartum week 2, to the reference range by the end of postpartum month 1. In horses with experimentally induced inflammation, saa concentration increased quickly and reached approximately four- to 40-fold increase over the pretreatment value on day 1 and remained high on days 2 to 6 after treatment. It then returned to the baseline value by 2 to 4 weeks in association with disappearance of local signs of inflammation. The saa concentration was high in most horses with clinical signs of inflammation. It was concluded from these data that this elisa is sensitive and reliable for measuring saa in horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research