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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

interest in understanding the effects of CBD on health parameters in aging horses. Within the equine industry, horses are considered senior at 15 years and older. 15 Senior horses comprise approximately 11% 16 of the current equine population in the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Virulence factors were studied in 82 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from the urine of dogs with urinary tract infections. The most frequently expressed O antigens were 2, 4, 6, 25, and 22/83. Most strains were K nontypeable. Mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (msh) with canine erythrocytes was observed in 71 strains and mannose-resistant hemagglutination (mrh) was observed in 32 strains. Strains that caused msh of erythrocytes from dogs also caused msh of erythrocytes from guinea pigs. Most strains that caused mrh of human A1p1 erythrocytes also reacted with erythrocytes of dogs.

Of 22 strains (27%)_that agglutinated human A1P1 erythrocytes, but not A1P1 erythrocytes, 17 (77%) had specificity for globo A, but did not react with the galactose α1→4galactoseβ disaccharide receptor. The remaining 5 strains and 2 others that simultaneously expressed an X adhesin agglutinated galactose α1→4galactoseβ-coated latex beads.

Bacterial adherence to canine uroepithelial cells from the bladder was most often observed in strains expressing msh, less often observed in strains expressing mrh, and least often observed in strains that failed to induce hemagglutination. Adherence of msh strains to canine uroepithelial cells was inhibited by α-methyl-D-mannoside. As a group, mrh strains expressing globo-A-and galactose α1→4galactoseβ-specific adhesins did not have strong adherence.

Strains of E coli isolated from dogs with urinaiy tract infections most commonly expressed type-1 fimbriae, and the main mechanism of in vitro adherence to canine uroepithelial cells involved a mannose-sensitive mechanism. Overrepresentation of globo-A-specific adhesins did not appear to be related to adherence of canine uroepithelial cells.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

government, $93,240; college or university, $92,612; and uniformed services, $79,166. Mean income did not increase for all areas of public and corporate employ ment, most likely because of retirement of veterinarians in senior-level positions. The compound

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

more prone to dog-walking injuries regardless of the dog’s size, training status, or lead device. 25 Secondly, it is possible that senior citizens may own dogs of size incompatible with their physical capabilities, and dogs may be prone to leash

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Karen E. Felsted, CPA, MS, DVM, CVPM assisted in the redesign of the graduating senior survey questionnaire. b. Because salary questions were reworded for the 2009 survey, caution should be used when comparing 2009 salary information with data

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

year-2009 graduates of all 28 US veterinary medical schools and colleges. a. Karen E. Felsted, CPA, MS, DVM, CVPM assisted in the redesign of the graduating senior survey questionnaire. b. Because salary questions were reworded for the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association