Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 40 items for :

  • "screening programs" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

observer’s experience, and the patient’s age. 1 , 4 – 7 While CT is currently the gold standard method for detecting ED, large-scale screening of dogs is still based on radiographs. 7 – 9 Elbow screening programs have been established to identify elbow

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase (pk) deficiency was first described in Basenjis 20 years ago. Although the approach to diagnosis had not been well established, a screening program to detect heterozygotes was thought to have eliminated pk deficiency from the Basenjis of the United States. Four not closely related Basenjis with severe chronic hemolytic anemia, from various parts of the United States, were studied. Their pcv ranged from 16 to 25% and their reticulocyte count was always above 15%. A progressive osteosclerosis was seen in all of the Basenjis and hepatic failure developed in 2 of them. The erythrocyte intermediary metabolite patterns indicated a glycolytic defect at the pk step. Erythrocyte pk activities were markedly increased in the anemic Basenjis, compared with those of a control group, but the enzyme in these Basenjis had abnormal kinetic properties and was thermolabile. An antibody against R-type pk, the regular erythrocyte pk form, did not neutralize the pk activity of affected Basenjis, and results of electrophoretic studies suggested the expression of M2-type pk, a leukocyte and fetal erythroid pk-type. Clinically healthy heterozygous Basenjis had half-normal R-type pk activity and did not express the M2-type in their erythrocytes.

We conclude that severe chronic hemolytic anemia, caused by erythrocyte pk deficiency, and associated ostersclerosis still develop in Basenjis. A definitive diagnosis cannot be reached by simply measuring erythrocyte pk activity; rather, diagnosis requires measurement of glycolytic substrate accumulation and enzyme stability and immunologic or electrophoretic studies of erythrocyte pk.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A geographically stratified sample of 25 small-animal practices administering at least six transfusions to dogs over the last 12 months was surveyed to determine how veterinarians obtain blood for transfusions, the direct costs of administering transfusions, and the impact of available blood on the management of critically ill dogs. The primary source of donor blood for each practice was a borrowed dog (12 practices) or in-house dogs kept on the premises (12 practices). Only one practice obtained blood from a nearby veterinary school.

There was a wide variation in practices regarding testing for diseases and screening of donors. Thirty-six percent of practices surveyed did not screen dogs for infectious diseases or evaluate hematologic variables prior to blood donation. Twenty-four percent of the respondents evaluated the donors solely for the purposes of detecting microfilaria. The remaining 40% of the practices performed one or more of the tests generally recommended as part of a screening program for potential blood donors. The blood type of donors was determined in eight of the practices, whereas blood typing of recipients was not routinely performed. Ten of 25 practices performed blood crossmatches, but only one practice performed crossmatches in all cases.

The distribution of direct costs per whole blood transfusion (500-ml unit) ranged from 25 to more than $300, with three fourths of the practices having costs less than $100. The higher-cost practices were those that maintained donors on the premises specifically for blood donation purposes. More than 80% of the respondents underestimated their collection costs by more than 25%, and approximately half of the practices did not recover their direct costs of transfusion. Because veterinarians viewed transfusions as a lifesaving measure in more than 80% of cases, fee recovery may have been less important than survival of the dog.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

An agar gel immunodiffusion (agid) test was used over a 3-year period to examine 1,871 serum samples from sheep representing 5 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis — infected flocks and 4 flocks presumed to be uninfected. Of 1,032 sheep, 31 had positive agid test results (scoring 1 to 5), and 23 of these 31 were necropsied. Infection with M paratuberculosis was confirmed by 1 or more of the following findings: observation of typical lesions on histologic examination of sections of ileum or ileocecal lymph nodes, observation of clumps of acid-fast bacteria in mucosal smears of ileum, and isolation of the organism from feces or tissue. False-positive results on agid testing were not found in sheep from flocks known to have exposure to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Diarrhea in infected sheep was observed infrequently; chronic, severe weight loss was the most common sign observed. On histologic examination of tissues from 20 infected sheep, 16 (80%) had diffuse lesions of the ileum and 13 (65%) had acid-fast bacteria in areas of ileal inflammation; 4 had discrete granulomas and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrates in the ileum. Sheep with diffuse lesions tended to have higher mean scores on agid testing and examination for acid-fast bacteria, compared with those from sheep with more discrete lesions. Bacteriologic culture yielded M paratuberculosis from only 3 sheep with paratuberculosis. On the basis of results of this study, we suggest that the nature of the response to infection with M paratuberculosis may influence the results of diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis, and that agid testing may be useful to identify M paratuberculosis infection in sheep with chronic weight loss and in flock-screening programs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

neurologic disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, the Center prevented these disorders from decimating the European Burmese and Korat breeds through a screening program in US and international catteries, some of which had carrier rates of approximately 25

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

gangliosidosis breeding colonies at our facility and from Korat cats tested for GM1 and GM2 as part of the screening program conducted by our facility. Blood samples were also obtained from negative control cats. b,c Fifty microliters of blood mixed with EDTA to

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

brachycephalic breed-related health disorders are increasing, 14,15 and radiographic screening programs for thoracic hemivertebrae have been considered. 16,17 However, evaluation of the impact of thoracic hemivertebrae on the welfare of brachycephalic breeds is

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

screening program in the period 1977 through 2005. To avoid underestimation of the prevalence of cataracts at the time of the study, the data from dogs born after 2000 were not used in drawing conclusions regarding changes in the prevalence with time

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Nielsen LN , McEvoy F , Jessen LR , et al. Investigation of a screening programme and the possible identification of biomarkers for early disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in Bernese Mountain Dogs . Vet Comp Oncol 2012 ; 10 : 124 – 134 . 10

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

J . et al . Echinococcosis in Utah . Am J Trop Med Hyg 1972 ; 21 : 185 – 188 . 10.4269/ajtmh.1972.21.185 10. Klock LE Spruance SL Andersen FL , et al. Detection of asymptomatic hydatid disease by a community screening program

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association