The definitive treatment for AGASACA often involves anal sacculectomy and extirpation of any metastatic iliosacral lymph nodes. 3 Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy are recommended adjunct treatments, and closed and open techniques for anal
the overall intraoperative and postoperative complication rates for anal sacculectomy in 161 dogs with AGASACA to be 7% and 17%, respectively; self-limiting diarrhea/hematochezia, tenesmus, surgical site erythema/swelling not related to infection
Objective—To determine complications associated
with anal sacculectomy in dogs with non-neoplastic
anal sac disease and compare complication rates for
open versus closed techniques.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for
information on signalment, history, physical examination
findings, type of anal sac disease, surgical technique
(closed, standard open [surgery performed prior
to 1980], or modified open [surgery performed after
1980]), and postoperative complications.
Results—In 57 dogs, a closed technique was used,
and in 38, an open technique was used. Only 3 dogs
developed short-term complications (excessive
drainage, scooting and inflammation, and seroma formation),
and 14 developed long-term complications
(continued licking of the surgery site, fecal incontinence,
fistulation, and stricture formation).
Development of postoperative complications was significantly
associated with surgical technique. Dogs
that underwent standard open sacculectomy prior to
1980 were 13.67 times as likely to have a long-term
complication as were dogs that underwent closed
sacculectomy. Weight of the dog, type of anal sac disease,
age at the time of surgery, and whether the
wound was closed surgically were not significantly
associated with whether dogs developed postoperative
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that anal sacculectomy is a safe and effective
treatment for non-neoplastic anal sac disease in dogs
and is associated with a low rate of complications.
The standard open technique was associated with
the greatest number of complications, whereas complication
rates for the closed and modified open techniques
were similar to each other. (J Am Vet Med
sac conditions. 1 Closed and open techniques for anal sacculectomy have been described, with a low incidence of major complications associated with either procedure. 2 – 6 The open technique allows complete removal of the anal sac duct and orifice
, surgery was performed after this approach failed. Radical excision of the lesions (with and without anal sacculectomy), anal resection with rectal pull-through, deroofing and electrofulguration, chemical cauterization, cryotherapy, caudectomy, and laser
-owned dogs that underwent surgical procedures to treat clinical signs of brachycephalic airway disease (ie, any combination of staphylectomy, nasal alaplasty, and laryngeal sacculectomy) and subsequently underwent general anesthesia at a later date for
AGASACA and a complete medical record. Only cats that underwent tumor excision by means of anal sacculectomy were included in the study. Cats that underwent tumor debulking or biopsy only were excluded from the study.
Medical records review
that had unremarkable tonsils had grade 2 to grade 3 respiratory signs. Eight dogs underwent unilateral laryngeal sacculectomy.
Anomalies observed preoperatively during pharyngolaryngoscopy (n = 423) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (94) in
(sacculectomy). 11 Other methods have been described that avoid extubation, although in the authors' experience, the method used provides no additional risk to the dog and reduces procedure-associated morbidity. 7,12
Diagnosis of all aspects of brachycephalic
sacculectomy burr d inserted through a short segment of nasogastric tubing. Under videoendoscopic guidance, the burr was inserted to the dorsal and caudal extent of the laryngeal saccule and rotated in a clockwise direction to engage the mucosa, as described